V. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Discuss the text with your fellow-students.

Infantile scurvy is a _________ caused by an inadequate intake of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), usually resulting from receiving cows milk formulas, which are _____________ in this vitamin and need supplementation. This _______________ usually occurs between 6 and 12 months of age. Early ________________ include irritability, poor appetite, and failure to gain weight. The infant may scream when moved and may not move his legs because of ______________ caused by bleeding under the thin layer of tissue covering bones. In older children, ____________ may occur under the skin, and the __________ around emerging teeth may bleed easily. Because vitamin C is necessary for the ____________ of connective tissue, scurvy may cause bone formation ____________ in the rib cage, the junction between the cartilage and bone enlarge, forming a row of bumps called scorbutic rosary. Scurvy also results in poor wound ____________ . A ___________ adequate in vitamin C can prevent scurvy; citrus fruits and juices are excellent sources. Formula-fed ______________ should receive 35 milligrams of vitamin C daily. Breastfeeding ______________ should take 100 milligrams of vitamin C by mouth daily. For the treatment of _____________ , the infant is given 100 to 200 milligrams of vitamin C by mouth daily for 1 week followed by 50 milligrams daily thereafter.

(Bleeding, healing, formation, symptoms, diet, deficient, pain, gums, infants, scurvy, condition, disease, mothers, abnormalities)

VI. Render the following text in English.

³ , . . ³ (A, D, E, K) (, ). , , . () , . D .

, , . ó . ³ .

, , o . , ( , , ). , .

VII. Have a bit of fun.

Blonde: Id like some vitamins for my son.

Clerk: Vitamin A, B or C?

Blonde: Any will do, my son doesnt know the alphabet yet!!



Banana = Vitamins,

Vitamins = Strength,

Strength = Power,

Power = Money,

Money = Women,

Women = Sex,

Sex = AIDS,

AIDS = Death.

*Don't Eat Bananas*

IV. Grammar Exercises


  If she came earlier the doctor could examine her. ↓ Subjunctive II represents an action contrary to reality. The Present Subjunctivecoincides in form with the Past Indefinite Indicative and refers to the present and the future. If I were you I would consult a doctor before taking these vitamins. I wish you consulted a doctor before taking these vitamins. The Past Subjunctivecoincides in form with the Past Perfect Indicative and refers to the past. If the doctor had administered the proper vitamin supplements last spring the baby wouldnt have developed infantile scurvy. I wish the doctor had administered the proper vitamin supplements last spring.  


I. Paraphrase the following sentences as in the model.

Model: Its a pity she is careless of her health.

I wish she were not so careless of her health.

Unfortunately, I didnt consult the doctor yesterday.

I wish I had consulted the doctor yesterday.

1. Its a pity her child suffers from vitamin deficiency.

2. Unfortunately, parents didnt realize that the time passed.

3. What a pity this experienced nutritionist decides stop working at this department.

4. Im sorry dietitians cannot develop an appropriate diet for your mother suffering from xerophthalmia.

5. Its a pity your son doesnt want to eat leafy green vegetables.

6. What a pity you didnt tell me about your pregnancy earlier.

7. Unfortunately, she made her small daughter follow vegetarian diet.

8. Its a pity I dont know what vitamins to take while following restrictive diet.

9. Unfortunately I dont know what products are rich in vitamin A.

10. I am sorry I cant cook organ meat properly


II. Open the brackets using the verb in a required form.

1. If Mary (to keep) ___________ to the proper diet, she wouldnt have developed vitamin deficiency.

2. Your son wouldnt be deficient of vitamin C if he (to consume) ____________________ citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage and green pepper.

3. If the doctor (to be) ____________ more attentive, he would have noticed the signs of beriberi in this Asian man.

4. If he (not to take) ______________ excess vitamin A, his spleen and kidneys wouldnt have enlarged.

5. The attacks of headache wouldnt recur daily if proper treatment (to be administered) ____________________.

6. If her husband (to eat) ___________ a variety of foods, it wouldnt be necessary to take vitamin supplements.

7. Your wife would need to take extra folic acid, if she (to be) _______ pregnant.

8. None of the toxic effects wouldnt have developed, if this athlete (not to consume) _______________ megadoses of vitamin and mineral supplements.


III. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. , , .

2. , , , , 1, 6, , .

3. , 䳺.

4. , , , .

5. , .

6. , , .

7. , .

8. , .

9. (pernicious) 쳿, 풺 12.

10. , D , .



Lesson 2



Term-elements: calc(i, o)-, ferr(i, o)-, sidero-

Grammar:Use of Conditional Mood and Subjunctive II

I. Active Vocabulary

chloride magnesium phosphate potassium sodium chromium copper iodine manganese molybdenum selenium zinc to incorporate (non)heme iron thyroid gland goiter IQ(intelligence quotient) fertility hypothyroidism puffy hoarse voice scaly sparse coarse miscarriage stillbirth mental retardation ['klLraId] [mxg'nJzIqm] ['fPsfeIt] [pq'txsIqm] ['sqVdIqm] ['krqVmIqm] ['kPpq] ['aIq"dJn (-daIn)] ['mxNgq"nJz] [mP'lIbdInqm] [sI'lJnIqm[ [zINk] [In'kLpq"reIt] [(nPn)'hJm 'aIqn] ['TaIrOId 'glxnd] ['gOItq] ['aI"kjH]   [fE:'tIlItI] ["haIpqV'TaIrOI"dIzqm] ['pAfI] ['hLs 'vOIs] ['skeIlI] [spRs] [kLs] [mIs'kxrIG] ['stIlbE:T] ['mentl "rJtR'deISn] , ( ); '() ()   , ; ; (; ) , ,

II. Read the following text.


Minerals are necessary for the normal functioning of the bodys cells. The body needs large quantities of calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, and sodium. These minerals are called macrominerals. Bone, muscle, heart, and brain function depends on these minerals. The body needs small quantities of chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc. These minerals are called trace minerals. Except for chromium, all trace minerals are incorporated into enzymes or hormones required in body processes (metabolism). Chromium helps the body to keep blood sugar levels normal. All trace minerals are harmful if too much is ingested.

Consuming too little or too much of certain minerals can cause a nutritional disorder. People who eat a balanced diet containing a variety of foods are unlikely to develop a nutritional disorder or a major mineral deficiency, except for calcium, iodine, or iron deficiency. However, people who follow restrictive diets may not consume enough of a particular mineral (or vitamin). For example, vegetarians, including those who eat eggs and dairy products, are at risk of iron deficiency. Infants are more likely to develop deficiencies because they are growing rapidly (thus requiring large amounts of nutrients).

Some minerals especially the macrominerals are important as electrolytes. The body uses electrolytes to help regulate nerve and muscle function and to maintain acid-base balance and water balance. If the balance of electrolytes is disturbed, disorders can develop.

Doctors can detect many common nutritional disorders or an electrolyte imbalance by measuring the levels of minerals in a sample of blood or urine.

Iron is a component of many enzymes affecting important chemical reactions throughout the body. Its also a component of hemoglobin, which enables red blood cells to carry oxygen and deliver it to the body tissues.

Food contains two types of iron heme iron, which is found principally in animal products, and nonheme iron, which represents more than 85% of the iron in the average diet. Heme iron is absorbed much better than nonheme iron. However, the absorption of nonheme iron is increased when its consumed with animal protein and vitamin C.

Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world, producing anemia in men, women, and children. Bleeding results in loss of iron from the body, producing an iron deficiency that must be treated with iron supplements. Iron deficiency may also result from an inadequate diet. This deficiency is likely to occur during pregnancy because a large amount of iron must be supplied by the mother to the growing fetus. Because adolescent girls are growing and starting to menstruate, they are at high risk of developing iron deficiency anemia if they follow diets that exclude meat.

The thyroid gland contains most of the iodine in the body. Iodine in the thyroid gland is necessary for the formation of thyroid hormones.

Iodine deficiency is rare in areas where iodine is added to table salt. However, the deficiency is common worldwide. People living far from the sea and at higher altitudes are at particular risk of iodine deficiency.

When iodine is deficient, the thyroid gland enlarges, forming a goiter, as it attempts to capture more iodine for the production of thyroid hormones. The persons IQ may be decreased. Fertility is reduced. In adults, hypothyroidism may cause puffy skin, a hoarse voice, impaired mental function, dry and scaly skin, sparse and coarse hair, intolerance to cold, and weight gain.

Lack of iodine during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and mental retardation and birth defects in the baby.

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