I. Transform the following complex sentences into simple ones using the Absolute Participle Complex.

Model: As the patient suffered from perennial rhinitis, the doctor prescribedZyrtec. The patient suffering from perennial rhinitis, the doctor prescribedZyrtec.

1. As he takes erythromycin, the physician doesnt recommend Allegra for treating his seasonal allergic rhinitis.

2. As the chemists shop is far from here, Ill go there by bus.

3. As his mother teaches English, he knows the language very well.

4. As her son had hives, she had to buy antihistamine prescribed by the doctor.


Model: As my grandmother had lost the medical order, I couldnt by Clarinex.

My grandmother having lost the medical order, I couldnt by Clarinex.

1. As Nick had taken antihistamine drug, his wife didnt allow him to drive a car.

2. As the patient had developed prostate problems, Claritin was discontinued.

3. As my friend had undergone a full physical examination, they included him in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of cetirizine.

4. As this young researcher had written an interesting article on the use of antihistamines for the common cold, the scientific committee invited him to submit his paper for presentation at the conference .


Model: As the puppy was vaccinated, we could take it to the south with us.

The puppy being vaccinated, we could take it to the south with us.

1. As the nearest chemists shop was being fixed, I had to go to the chemists situated in the center of the town to buy Benadryl for my runny nose.

2. As the article on oral antihistamines was being printed, we hoped to get it soon.

3. As antihistamines were taken, the patient had comparatively dry mouth and therefore persistent problems with breath odours.

4. As symptoms ofseasonal allergic rhinitis are reduced by Atarax, the physician recommends me to use this medication.


Model: When the work had been done, the pharmacists went home.

The work having been done, the pharmacists went home.

1. When Chlor-Trimeton had been taken, such rare but serious side effect as fast irregular heartbeat developed.

2. As allergy had been diagnosed in this patient, the proper antihistamine medication was administered.

3. When perennial rhinitis had been effectively controlled by modern generation of non-sedating antihistamines, the man could definitely enjoy life.


II. Translate into English using the Absolute Participle Complex.

1. , . ϳ 㳿 , , .

2. , .

3. , .

4. ; .

5. , .

6. , .

7. , , ﳿ .

8. , .

Lesson 5



Grammar:The Gerund

I. Active Vocabulary


antipyretic available salicylates stroke interleukin hypothalamus to override to vomit contraindicated to avoid allergy blood thinner consequence to exceed ["xntIpaI'retIk] [q'veIlqbl] [sq'lIsIleIts] [strqVk] ["Intq'lHkIn] ["haIpqV'Txlqmqs] ["qVvq'raId] ['vPmIt] ["kPntrq'IndIkeItId] [q'vOId] ['xlqGI] ['blAd 'TInq]   ['kPnsIkwqns] [Ik'sJd] ; , , , , , ,


II. Read the following text.


An antipyretic is a type of medication that will prevent or reduce fever by lowering body temperature from a raised state. It will not affect normal body temperature if the patient does not have a fever. There are many of these drugs with which people may have great familiarity. Widely available over-the-counter types include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen, salicylic acid or aspirin and paracetamol. All of these medications can be used to lower fevers, and there are other medications that might be tried if these do not work.

One of the distinctive parts of the definition of antipyretics is that they are medications that only lower body temperature when fever is present. This is why over-the-counter drugs listed above are applicable as use for other things like treatment of inflamation, pain or, in the case of salicylates, daily treatment for stroke prevention. Fever reducers could not be particularly effective for other treatments, if they always lowered body temperature. Using them might mean dropping the temperature of the body below safe levels.

The reason that these medications typically only work on temperature when required has to do with the way the body responds to infection. When infection of any type occurs, the body may begin reducing a substance called interleukin, which sends a message to the hypothalamus to increase temperature. Antipyretics essentially override this message, and the hypothalamus responds by lowering temperature to normal.

Its often necessary for people to continue to take antipyretics for a few days or more to keep a fever from coming back. Other medications like antibiotics might be useful in bacterial infections too, as these may help reduce infection and reduce release of interleukin. On the other hand, some viral infections quickly leave and people might only need a single dose of antipyretics to regulate the temperature.

There are many potential forms antipyretics might take, even in over-the-counter types. They could be available in pill form, in chewable tablets, in quick dissolve strips or in liquid. Many people may take suppository types of medications, and this is particularly helpful when controlling fever of someone who is vomiting.

There are 3 classes of antipyretic medications that are sold over-the-counter:

Salicylates aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), choline salicylate (Arthropan), magnesium salicylate (Arthriten), and sodium salicylate (Scot-Tussin Original);

Acetaminophen (Tylenol);

NSAIDs ibuprofen (Advil), naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve), and ketoprofen.

There are some general things to remember about the common antipyretics. Aspirin should never be used in children unless it is prescribed. Acetaminophen/paracetamol is usually contraindicated in those with liver disease. Ibuprofen or other NSAIDs may need to be avoided by people with NSAID allergy or who take any form of blood thinner. More antipyretics are not better; there can be dangerous consequences when people exceed the recommended dose.

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