Major differences between items in synonymic sets

different in sound-form, either in shades of meaning or in stylistic characteristics, preferences in usage(big/large), differ in the degree of formality(to begin-to commence is formal), collocations(female friend, feminine beauty,do homework, make a mistake)

18.Antonymy. Types of Antonyms. ws of the same category of a part of speech which have contrasting mnings. Ants r believed to appear in pairs,but this is not quite true in reality. A polysem w may have an ant for each of its mnings(dull-interesting, clever,active,bright) Most ants are adjs(high-low, wide-narrow).Verbs take the 2nd place(loose-find,live-die).Nouns r not rich in ants(friend-enemy,good-evil). Antonymic adverbs can be divided into 2 groups:1advs derived from adjs(warmly-coldly) 2advs proper(here-there,ever-never) In Engl u can smtms make ants by adding a prefix(real-unreal)There are 4 types of ants: 1Gradable ants describe smthing which can be measured and compared with smtng else. F.e one car can b fast and the other slow, small and big; hot and cold; dry and wet; clean and dirty.2 Complementary ants are absolute opposites, like mortal and immortal.3 Relational ants are opposites where 1 w describes a relationship btw 2 objs, and the other w describes the same relationship when the 2 objs are reversed (parent and child, teacher and student, buy and sell) 4Auto-ants are the same 2 ws that mean the opposite fast (moving quickly) and fast (stuck in place).

19 Hyponymy and Meronymy. Hyponymy is a relation btw 2 ws in which the meaning of 1 of the ws includes the meaning of the other. A hyponym is a subordinate, specific term whose referent is included in the referent of super ordinate term(blue,green-kinds of colour). Therefore, colour is called the superordinate term, and blue, red, green are called hyponyms.A superordinate can have many hyponyms. Hyponymy is the relationship between each lower term and the higher term (superordinate). It is a sense relation. Hyponymy is not restricted to objects, abstract concepts, or nouns. It can be identified in many other areas of the lexicon (Cook has hyponyms: roast, boil, fry, grill, bake)In a lexical field, hyponymy may exist at more than one level. A w may have both a hyponym and a superordinate term (animals - bird, mammal, Bird-sparrow, hawk) So there is a hierarchy of terms related to each other through hyponymic relations.Meronymy is a semantic relation that holds between a part and the whole. A meronym denotes a constituent part of, or a member of something.F.e, 'finger' is a meronym of 'hand' because a finger is part of a hand. Similarly 'wheel' is a meronym of 'automobile'.

20 The Concept and Definition of Meaning.The ling science at present is not able to put forward the exact definition of mning. The very function of a w as a unit of communication is made possible by its possessing a mning. Mning is a component of a w through which a concept is communicated,endowing the w with thw ability of denoting real objs, qualities, abstr notions. The relationship btw word, concept & referent is represented by sem triangle(symbol, thought or reference, referent). There is a hypothesis that concepts can only find their realization through ws. The mechanism by which concepts r converted into ws & reverse process r not yet understood or described. The branch of Lingcs which specialises in the study of mning is called Semantics. The modern approach to semcs is based on the assumption that the inner form of the w presents a structure which is called the sem structure of the w.

21 Major differences btw Br&Am Engl with respect to voc.Voc used by Am speakers has distinctive features of its own. The 1st group of such ws is called historical Americanisms(they preserved the mning that these ws had in 17 c,when 1st british sailed to Am, while they changed its mning in Br Engl, f.e fall-autumn, guess-think, sick-ill). The 2nd group is proper Ams (the oldest were made by 1st colonists to name the unknown phenomena of the new world, where everything was different from their home: egg-plant, red cedar, catfishlater proper Ams r represented by names of objs which r called differently in the US (drug store for chemist`s, baggage-luggage, elevator-lift,subway-undergroung) Threr r also ws that can b found both in Br &Am voc, but they have developed mnings characteristic of Am usage (date an appointment for a particular time in Am). The Am voc is rich in borrowings: spanish(ranch, canyon), negro(banjo), indian(wigwam,canoe,moccasin). 1 more group is represented by Am shortenings(movies, gym, dorm, circs, mo-moment, cert-certainty, n.g for no good all these r informal.


.22 Word Meaning (Word as a linguistic sign).There are many models of the linguistic sign. A classic model is the one by the Swiss ling F de Saussure. According to him, lang is made up of signs and every sign has 2 sides (like a coin both sides of which are inseparable):the signifier , the "shape" of a w, its phonic component, i.e. the sequence of letters or phonemes, the signified, the ideational component, the concept or obj that appears in our minds when we hear or read the signifier, the referent. The former is a "mental concept", the latter the "actual object" in the world. Saussure's understanding of sign is called the 2-side model of sign.The concept of arbitrariness(Saussure):the relation btw the signifier and signified is arbitrary, there is no direct connection btw the shape & the concept.

23 . Denotation & Connotation
the leading semantic component in the sem structure of a w is denotative component or denotation(referential component). The denotative component expresses the conceptual(notional) content of a w. (both notorious & celebrated have the same denotation-widely known) Connotation(connotative component) is additional sem component that involves emotional overtones, subjective interpretation.(notorious-widely known for criminal act or bad traits of char, celebrated-waidely known for special achivement in some field)

.24 Types of Connotation 1.the connotation of degree or intensity (surprise-astonish-amaze-astound, like-admire-love-adore-worship 2connotation of duration (flash-blaze, shudder-shiver,say-speak) 3 Emotive con (alone-single-lonely-solitary, angry-furious-enraged, fear-terror-horror) 4 Evaluative con (famous-notorious-celebrated, create-manifacture) 5 Causative con (shiver with cold, shudder with fear, blush from modesty, redden from anger) 6 Connotation of manner (stroll-stride-trot-pace-stumble, peep-look be stealth, peer-look with difficulty) 7 Con of attendant circumstances (1 peeps from behind half-closed door, newspaper, through the hole, 1 peers in darkness, through the fog) it seems as if a whole set of scenery was built within the w`s mning. 8 Con of attendant features (pretty-associated with small delicate features and fresh complexion, handsome-with a tall stature & fine proportions, beautiful-with classical features & a perfect figure 9 Stylistic con (snack, bite(coll), snap (dial), refreshment, feast(form), leave: be off, clear out, depart, retire)

.25 Polysemy. A w having several mnings is called polysem, & the ability of ws to have more than 1 mning is described by the term polysemy. Most Engl ws r polysem. The wealth of expressive resources of a lang depends on the degree to which polysemy is developed. A well-developed polysemy is a great advantage in a lang. the number of sound combinations is limited and polysemy becomes increasingly important in providing the means for enriching the voc. The complicated processes of polisemy development involve both the appearance of new mning & the loss of old 1s. When analysing the sem structure of a polysem w, it`s necessary to distinguish btw 2 levels of analysis. On the 1st level, the sem structure of a w is treated as a system of mnings. (fire: flame-, , , ) Main mning presents the centre of the sem structure of the w holding it together. It`s mainly through mning 1 that secondary mnings can b associated with 1 another. Some sem structures r arranged ona different principle. F.e dull: uninteresting, stupid, not bright, not loud, not sharp, not active, seeing/hearing badly) All these mnings have in common is implication of deficiency. This brings us to the 2nd level of analysis. The sem structure of a w is divisible. Each separate mning may b represented as a set of sem components. Therefore the sem structure of a w should b investigated at both these levels: 1 of different mnings,2 of sem components withineach separate mning.

.26 Homonymy. Types of homonyms.Homs r the ws, different in mning and either identical both in sound and spelling or identical only in spelling or sound. The most widely accepted classification: 1 Homs proper r ws identical in pronunciation and spelling:(Ball , ball , Bay ; bay ).2 Homophonesare words of the same sound, but of different meaning(Airheir,bye buyby, knightnight) 3 Homographs are words different in sound and in meaning but accidentally identical in spelling:Bow[bou] / [bau] Lead[li:d] / [led] Wind[wind] / [waind] () Full homs&Partial. Full lexical homsrepresent the same category of part of speech and the same paradigm(match , ), simple lex-gram partial homs-the same part of speech, paradigms have 1 identical form, but it`s never the same form(to found/found pp find), complex lex-gram partial homs-different p of speech, have 1 identical form in paradigms(rose n, rose pp rise), partial lexical homs-the same cat of p of speech, identical only in their correspondinf formms(to can(canned), can(could)

24Jargon and slang. Slang is a lang of highly colloquial style, considered as below the level of standart educated speech, &consisting either of new ws or of current ws employed in some special sense. Slang ws & idioms r short-lived & very soon either disappear or lose their peculiar colouring & becoe either colloquial or stylistically neutral lexical unit. All or most slang ws r current ws which have been metaphorically shifted often with a coarse, mocking, cynical colouring. Jargon is terminology which is esp defined in relationship to a specific activity, profession, group, or event. the term covers the language used by people who work in a particular area or who have a common interest. Much like slang, it can develop as a kind of short-hand, to express ideas that are frequently discussed between members of a group. A standard term may be given a more precise or unique usage among practitioners of a field. In many cases this causes a barrier to communication with those not familiar with the lang of the field. As an example, the words RAM, bit, byte are jargon terms related to computing.

28Euphemisms and taboo words.A euphemism is a word or expression that is used when people want to find a polite or less direct way of talking about difficult or embarrassing topics like death or the bodily functions. The w lavatory has produced many euphemisms-restroom, powder room, water-closet. Pregnant-in an interesting condition, with a baby coming. Trousers used to have many euphs too-unwhisperables, situpons.Eating-refresh oneself, break bread. Drunk-intoxicated,tipsy,pickled,halfseasover. All euphemisms r used to avoid social taboos.Superstitious tabooshave theirroots in distant past of mankind, when people believed that there was a supernatural link btw name and the obj it represented. All the ws denoting evil spirits, diseases, danger animals and powers of nature were taboo. Christ religion also made certain ws taboo. Devil-the black1, Prince of Darkness. God-good heavens, goodness. Nowadays: die-passaway, kick the bucket. Mad person-mentally unstable, loony, unbalanced. A clinic for such patients: asylum, sanatorium.


29 Multiword lexemes.A multiword lexeme is a lexeme made up of a sequence of two or more lexemes that has properties that are not predictable from the properties of the individual lexemes or their normal mode of combination. Engl is rich in multi-word units, there is a rich stock of phrasal and prepositional verbs, and there are innumerable idioms and collocations. phrasal verb is commonly applied to a verb and a particle and/or a preposition forming a single sem unit. This sem unit cannot be understood based upon the meanings of the individual parts in isolation, but rather it must be taken as a whole. In oth ws, the meaning is non-compositional & unpredictable. Phrasal verbs that include a preposition are known as prepositional (look after)and phrasal verbs that include a particle are also known as particle verbs(hang out) & these 2 types e smtms combined as in put up with. An idiom is a combination of words that has a figurative meaning, due to its common usage. An idiom's figurative meaning is separate from the literal meaning of definition of the ws of which it is made. There are estimated to be at least 25,000 idiomatic expressions in the Engl lang. The mning of most Idioms is associated wlth the underlying empirical image, which together wlth the syntactic structure of the idiomatic w-combination motivates this mning. The motivation affects the denotation of mning, its evaluative and expressive nature, and bears on its collocational and pragmatic potentialities. The mning of idioms results from reinterpreting the mning of the original w-combinations. The notion of idiom motivation still remains obscure, whereas the empirical associations of the image at the basis of the idiomatic meaning motivate all the idiom components. (side by side-prob 2 persons r standing closely together and touching each other`s sides)

30Word Formation: Affixation. Inflectional and derivational affixes. Affixationis the formation of new ws by means of suffixes and prefixes to stems\basis.Affixational morphemes include inflectional affixes or inflections and derivational affixes. Inflections carry only gram meaning and are thus relevant only for the formation of word-forms. Derivational affixes r relevant for building various types of ws. They are lexically always dependent on the root which they modify. They possess the same types of meaning as found in roots, most of them have the part-of-speech meaning which makes them structurally the important part of the w as they condition the lexico-grammatical class the w belongs to. Due to this component of their meaning the derivational affixes are classified into affixes building different parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs.Roots and derivational affixes are generally easily distinguished and the difference between them is clearly felt as, e.g., in the words helpless, handy, blackness, Londoner, refill, etc.: the root-morphemes help-, hand-, black-, London-, fill-, are understood as the lexical centers of the words, and less, -y,-ness, -er, re-are felt as morphemes dependent on these roots.


31Word Formation: Compounding. Classification of compounds.Ws r produced by combining 2 or > stems is 1 of the most productive ways of wformation in En (affixation, conversion). 3 types of compounds 1neutral-process of comp is realized without any linking elements(sunflower) 3 subtypes of neutral comps: simple neutral-consist of simple afixless stems(blackbird), derivational comps-have affixes in their structure(blue-eyed, golden-haired, lady-killer), contracted comps-have shortened stem in their structure(tv-set, t-shirt). 2Morphological comps(non-productive) 2 compounding stems r combined by a linking vowel or consonant(anglo-saxon, spokesman) 3 Syntactic comps formed from segments of speech, preserving articles, prepositions..(lilly-of-the-valley,jack-of-all-trades, good-for-nothing) idiomatic comps(ladybird, tallboy), non-idiomatic(classroom, evening-gown).

32 Conversion or Functional Shift Conversion is 1 of the most productive ways of modern Engl w-building. A functional shift is the conversion of 1 p of speech to another without the addition of a suffix. It is sometimes said that a zero derivational suffix is added. The only concrete change that may occur in a func shift is a change in stress. The new w has a meaning which differs from that of the original one though it can more or less be easily associated with it.The high productivity of conv finds its reflection in speech where numerous occasional cases of conv can be found, which occur momentarily, through the immediate need of the situation. kinds of conv:V > N (a) run, drive, N > V (to) head, shoulder, telephoneA > V (to) better,dirtyN>A blue-collar, paperA > N (the) poor, richPrt>V (to)down,up, preposition to a noun (ins and outs), an adverb to a noun (whys),a prefix to noun (pros and cons).stress: permít-pérmit,recórd-récord A special kind of conv is commonization-a proper noun is converted into a common word(china, sandwich) ShorteningThe three types acronyms, initialisms, and clipped forms have incommon the deletion of sound segments without respect to morphological boundaries. Clipping is the result of deliberately dropping part of a w, usually either the end or the beginning, or less often both, while retaining the same meaning and same word class( end:hols-holidays, ad, beginning:phone- telephone, beginning&end: fridge,flu) Acronyms and initialisms. In an acronym, the initial letters of ws in a phrase are pronounced as a w, as in WASP,NATOIn an initialism, the initial letters of ws in a phrase are pronounced as letters, as in a.m., p.m., B.C., A.D. BlendingA blend involves 2 processes of wformation, compounding and clipping. 2 freews are combined and blended, usually by clipping of the end of the 1st w and thebeginning of the 2nd . types of blends. 1) The beginning of 1 w & the end of another are combined (smog = smoke + fog).2) Combining of the beginnings of 2 ws (cyborg-cybernetic organism). 3) Splicing ws around a common sequence of sounds, as with a w motel-motor and hotel.4) Portmanteau words-multiple sounds from 2 ws r blended, while mostly preserving the sounds orderslithy-lithe and slimy(L.C)

33.Scandinavian borrowings in English. Scandinavian: By the end of the OE period Engl underwent a strong influence of Scandinavian due to the Scandinavian conquest of the Br Isles. As a result there are about 700 borrowings from Scandinavian into Engl (pronouns: they, them, their; verbs: to call, to want, to die; adj: flat, ill, happy; noun: cake, egg, knife, window).

34.Greek and Latin loanwords in English. Latinborrowings are divided into 3 periods:1) 5 cent, ws are connected with trade (pound, inch, kitchen, wall, port);2) The time of Christianity, ws are connected with religion (Lat: alter, cross, dean; Greek: church, angel, devil, anthem);3) Time of renaissance, ws were borrowed after great vowel shift (17 cent) (item, superior, zoology, memorandum, vice versa, AM, PM).

35.French borrowings in Engl. the largest group of borrowings is French borrowings. Most of them came into Engl during the Norman Conquest. Normans belong to the race of scand. origin but during their residence in Normandy they had given up the native lang and adopted French. During 3 cent after the Norman Conquest French was the lang of the court & nobility. There are following semantic groups of French borrowings:1) ws relating to government (administer, empire, state);2) military affairs (army, war, battle);3) jurisprudence (advocate, petition, sentence);4)fashion (luxury, coat, collar);5)jewelry (topaz, pearl);6)food and cooking (lunch, cuisine, menu);7)literature and music (pirouette, ballet).

36.Neologisms. Euphemisms and the notion of political correctness. Neologismsnew w expressions are created for new things irrespective of their scale of importance. They may be all important and concern some social relationships (new form/ state) Peoples republic. Or smth threatening the very existence of humanity nuclear war or the thing may be short lived. Nis a newly coined word, phrase/ a new meaning for an existing word / a word borrowed from another language.Euphemisms can even make the harsh reality appear natural, which is why they are used by politicians in order to take the people in and endear themselves to the public: neutralise (= kill, murder). The natives have been neutralised as to say: The natives have been exterminated / massacred / killed. The reality is the same, but not the way to express it, and the effect that it produces.

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