Methods of Lexicological Investigation: Componential Analysis.

Denotational meaning is segmented into semantic components (semes). In terms of CA the meaning of a w is defined as a set of elements of meaning which are not part of the vocabulary of the lang itself, but rather theoretical elements postulated in order to describe the semantic relations between the lexical elements of a given lang.Man-woman Boy-girl The meanings of 1st ws and the 2nd have smth in common. This distinctive picture we call semantic component or seme. In this case the distinctive feature is of sex: male/female.So CA is an attempt to describe the mning of ws in terms of a universal inventory of semes and their possible combinations.

38.Etymological make-up of the English Vocabulary. 1st cent BC: Rom emp, germanic tribes, tribal langa contained only Indo-European and Germanic els. Trade with Rom.emp new products:chese,butter,new fruit &veg:cherry,pear,plum. Items connect with trade: cup, port, wine, mill. 1st cent AD: Saxons, Angles, Jutes migrated to Br isles-confronted be the Celts-contacts-borrowings(bald, druid, cradle,bard), place names:Avon, Esk. 7th cent AD:Christianization of Engl, Latin-official lang-borrowings from church latin:priest, bishop, monk, nun,candle. Educational terms:school,scholar,magister. End of 8th c-mid 11th c.Scandinavian invasions (call, take, die, law, husband,weak,sky,skirt,ski,skin) 1066 Battle of Hastings,William the Conq-Norman Conquest: norman french borrowings:administrative ws(state,government,parliament),Legal terms (court,judge,crime), Military terms(army,war,soldier,officer),educational terms(pupil,lesson,library, science), everydaylife(dinner, plate,supper,river) the Renaissance period revived interest in Latin &Greek-borrowings(lat:major/minor, intelligent,create, datum, phenomenon, phylosophy, music, greek: atom, cycle, ethics) Contacts with oth european lang-borrow-French(Parisian dialect):regime, police, routine, machine, technique) Italian:piano,violin,opera,colonel.


The native element1 The borrowed element
I. I Indo-European element     I. Celtic (5th 6th c. A. D.)
II. Germanic element II. Latin 1st group: 1st . . . 2nd group: 7th c. A. D. 3rd group: the Renaissance period
III. English Proper element (no earlier than 5th c. A. D.) III. Scandinavian (8th 11th c. A. D.) IV. French 1. Norman borrowings: 11th 13th c. A. D. 2. Parisian borrowings (Renaissance) V. Greek (Renaissance) VI. Italian (Renaissance and later) VII. Spanish (Renaissance and later) VIII.German IX. Indian X. Russian And some other groups

39Main types of dictionaries.Engl dict r roughly divided into encyclopedic & linguistic. An encyclopedic dictionary typically includes a large number of short listings, arranged alphabetically, and discussing a wide range of topics. Eds can be general, containing articles on topics in many different fields; or they can specialize in a particular field (art, biography, law, medicine, philosophy). They may also b organized around a particular academic, cultural or national perspective.(Encyclopaedia Brittanica/Americana, Chamber`s Encycl, Everyman`a E) The linguistic dictionary deals with only the lexical stock i.e. ws as speech material. Classification: restricted (only certain part of w-stock:dialectal, phraseological, foreign), unrestricted(various spheres of life). General-present wide range of data, Specialized-only in relation to some characteristics (etymology, frequency) Mono/bilingual.Main types: Explanatory d-provide inf on all aspects of lex units(graphical,phonetical,etymological,stylistic),synchronic:the Consice Oxford Dof Current

Engl, universal Dof En lang, Angl-Saxon d-historical,not diachr. Translation Ds(parallel)-wbooks containing items in 1 lang & their equivalents in another (Muller). Specialized Ds: Phraseological:idiomatic or colloquial phrases,proverbs+free phrases & separate ws. New ws d of neologisms (A D of New Engl), ds of slang (D of slang & unconventional Engl), Usage Ds judge usage problems (difference in mning, proper pronunciation, neologisms, archaisms) D of Modern Eng Usage. Ds of w frequency frequency & occurrence of lex units in speech(General Service List). Reverse ds lists of ws in which the entry ws r arranged in alphabetical order starting with their final letter (indicate ws which form rhyme) Rhyming D of Elang. Now-studying w-forming els. Pronouncing Ds Engl Pronouncing D. Etymological Ds trace ws to their oldest forms, sourse of borrowing: the Oxford D of En Etymology. Ideographic Ds ws grouped by concepts expressed: Thesaurus of En Ws & Phrases. Spelling or orthographical ds, W formation ds, ds of homonyms, paronyms, gram ds, ds of abbreviations, acronyms etc.

40.Lexicology and Lexicography Both L and lexicography are derived from the Gr w lexiko (speech,word). The common concern of both of them is 'w' or the lex unit of a lang. L is the science of ws. Lexicography is the writing of ws. The etymological mning of these ws speaks for itself the scope of these branches of linguistics. L is the science of the study of w whereas lexicography is the writing of the w in some concrete form i.e. in the form of dictionary. As we shall see later, L and lexicography are very closely related, rather the latter is directly dependent on the former and may be called applied L.

41. Selection of lexical units and arrangement of entries in dictionaries.The selection of lex units on the basis of social variations depends on the scope of the d. the general purpose ds may include the colloquialisms although normative ds don`t enter them. In the ds using more of oral lang & unwritten texts the possibility of inclusion of colloquialism is greater than the ds which are mainly based on written lang. Similarly a d with a normative character might not include ws pertaining to slangs, taboo, Smaller ds & ds for learners also don`t have scope for their inclusion.1 very common & widely accepted criterion for selection of entries is the frequency of the lex items. Frequency counts are specially made a basis for the selection of entries in a learner's d, bcause they provide the voc minimum criterion for selection of entries. There are many limitations of it. Arrangement of Entries: The d is not only a storehouse of the lex inf of a lang. It is also clearing house of this inf. The inf should b presented in a d in such a way that it is easily retrievable. The entries in a d should, therefore, b arranged in such a way as to enable the reader to find the inf quickly & correctly. It would b impractical to present the entries in a completely haphazard manner. A good d is 1 in which u can find the inf u r looking for preferably in the very 1st place u look.alphabetical/cluster-type/frequency.

42.Selection and arrangement of mnings.The number of the mnings of the w depends on 2 factors: 1complier`s aim 2 decision on which obsolete, archaic, dialectal mnings should b recorded, how the problem of polysemy,homonymy is solved. The diachronic ds list >mnings than synchronic 1s. There r 3 ways in which w mnings r arranged: in the sequence of their historical development (historical order), in conformity with frequency of use (empirical or actual order), in the logical connection (logical order). It`s accepted to follow the historical order in diachronic ds & empirical or logical in synchronic.

43 Methods of lexicological analysis.The process of scientific investigation may b subdivided into several stages. Observation is an early & basic phase of all modern sci investigations & is the centre of the inductive method of inquiry. The next stage is classification, or orderly arragement of the data obtained through observation. The following stage is usually generalization,collection of data & their orderly arragement must eventually lead to formulation of a generalization (hypothesis, rule, law). Verification of hypothesis any ling generalization is to b followed by the verifying process. Methods:1Contrastive Analysis. 2Statistical Methods of Analysis. 3Immediate Constituents Analysis. 4Distributional Analysis and Co-occurrence. 5Transformational Analysis. 6Componential Analysis 7Method of Semantic Differential 8Contextual Analysis. Selection of particular procedure largerly depends on the goal set before the investigator.



44 Regional variation in the English vocabulary.There are 2 types of lang territorial varieties: variants and dialects. Regional variants of standard lang are used in large areas as means of orral and written communication: British, Am, Australian & Canadian English. Dialects are varieties of non-standard lang used in small localities for oral communication. The main variants of the Elang are British and Am. Br, Am, Australian & Canadian Eng cannot b regarded as diff langs as they have the same voc, phonetic and gram systems. They also cannot be referred to local dialects: they serve all spheres of verbal communication & have dialectal differences of their own. Each regional variant has its phonetic, grammatical and lexical peculiarities. Phonetic differences include articulatory-acoustic characteristics and use of some phonemes, peculiar rhythm and intonation. Gram differences consist in the preference of this or that gram category or form, lexical peculiarities r not numerous. These are mainly divergencies in the sem structure of ws and their usage. Local Dialects on the Br Isles: There are 6 groups of Eng local dialects: Lowland (Scottish), Northern, Western; Midland, Eastern, Southern. They are used in oral speech by local population. Only the Scottish dialect has its own literature (R. Burns).1 of the best known dialects of Br Eng is the dialect of London - Cockney. There r some peculiarities of it: interchange of [v] and [w] wery vell. Local Dialects in the USA: There exist a number of loc dials which are divided into 3 major groups: Northern, Southern and Midland (North Midland and South Midland). some peculiarities in NY dialect can b pointed out, e.g. there is no distinction between [ǽ] and [a:] in such words as ask, dance, bad, both phonemes are possible.

45Collocation and the notion of collocabilityA collocation is 2 or > ws that often go together. These combinations just sound "right" to native Eng speakers, who use them all the time. On the other hand, other combinations may be unnatural and just sound "wrong"

the fast trainquick train
fast foodquickfooda

quick showerfastshower
a quick meal a fast meal

collocability - the tendency of ws to occur together in a collocation.


46 Methods of Lexicological Investigation: Transformational AnalysisTransformational analysis in lexicological investigations may b definedas re-patterning of various distributional structures in order to discover difference or sameness of meaning of practically identical distributional patterns.W-groups of identical distributional structure when re-patterned also show that the semantic relationship btween ws & consequently the meaning of w-groups may b different. F.e, in the w-groups consisting of a possessive pronoun followed by a noun, his car, his failure, his arrest, his goodness, etc., the relationship btween his & the following nouns is in each instant different which can b demonstrated by means of transformational procedures. his failure (mistake, attempt) may b represented as he failed (was mistaken, attempted) or A performs which is impossible in the case of his car (pen, table). his arrest (imprisonment, embarrassment) may b re-patterned into he was arrested (imprisoned & embarrassed) or A is the goal of the action B. his goodness (kindness) may b represented as he is good (kind, modest) or is the quality of A. Types of transformation differ according to purposes for which transformations are used. There are: permutation, replacement, additin (or expansion), deletion

47 Meths of Lex Inv: Distributional Analysis.By the term distribution we underst& the occurrence of a lex unit relative to oth lex units of the same level (ws relative to ws /morphemes relative to morphemes). In other ws by this term we understand the position which lex units occupy or may occupy in the text or in the flow of speech. It is readily observed that a certain component of the w-meaning is describd when the w is identified distributionally. F.e, in the sentence The boy home the missing w is easily identified as a verb The boy went, came, ran,home. Thus, we see that the component of meaning that is distributionally identified is actually the part-of-speech mning but not the individual lex meaning of the w under analysis. It is assumed that sameness / difference in distribution is indicative of sameness / difference in part-of-speech meaning. Make + a + N - make a coat, a machine, a decision Make + (the) + N + V - make the machine go, make somebody work Make + A - make sure Make + a + A+N - make a good wife. In each of these examples the meaning of make is different. Some of these patterns, however, may b used for several meanings of the w make, so that the differentiation of meanings is not complete. Another example:Get + N (receive) get letter Get + Adj (bcome) get angry Get + Vinf (start) get to think

48 Meths of Lex Inv: Immediate Constituent Analysis.In IC analysis, a sentence is divided up into major divisions or "immediate constituents", & these constituents are in turn divided into further immediate constituents, & this process continues until irreducible constituents are reached, i.e., until each constituent consists of only a w or meaningful part of a w. The end result of IC analysis is often presented in a visual diagrammatic form that reveals the hierarchical immediate constituent structure of a sentence. For sentences whose structures are unusual, this diagramming may bcome excessively complex; in such cases verbal description is used. F.e, the sentence "The girl is happy" can b divided into immediate constituents "The girl" & "is happy". These in turn can b analyzed into immediate constituents (the+girl) & (is+happy), & so on. Bloomfield doesn't give any special technique to detect immediate constituents, rather appeals to the native speaker's intuition.

49 Ms of Lex Inv: Contrastive Analysis. is the systematic study of a pair of langs with a view to identifying their structural differences & similarities. Historically it has been used to establish language genealogies. In fact contrastive analysis grew as the result of the practical dem&s of lang teaching methodology where it was empirically shown that the errors which are made recurrently by foreign lang students can be often traced back to the differences in structure btw the target lang & the lang of the learner. This implies the necessity of a detailed comparison of the structure of a native & a target lang which has been named contrastive analysis. every language classifies reality in its own way by means of voc units. In Eng, the w foot is used to denote the extremity of the leg. In Ukrainian there is no exact equivalent for foot. The w denotes the whole leg including the foot. 1 example is provided by the ws watch & clock. It would seem natural for Ukr speakers to have a single w to refer to all devices that tell us what time it is; yet in English they are divided into 2 semantic units.

50 Ms of Lex Inv: Statistical Analysis. Statistical approach proved essential in the selection of voc items of a foreign lang for teaching purposes. we have to select only lexical units that are commonly used by native speakers. It goes without saying that to be useful in teaching statistics should deal with mnings as well as sound-forms as not all w-mnings are equally frequent. Besides, the number of mnings exceeds by far the number of ws. The total number of different mnings recorded & illustrated in OED for the first thous& it is nearly 25,000. Naturally not all the mnings should be included in the list of the first two thous& most commonly used ws. Statistical analysis of mning frequencies resulted in the compilation of A General Service List of English Ws with Semantic Frequencies. The semantic count is a count of the frequency of the occurrence of the various senses of 2,000 most frequent ws as found in a study of five million running ws. The semantic count is based on the differentiation of the mnings in the OED & the frequencies are expressed as percentage, so that the teacher & textbook writer may find it easier to underst& & use the list. An example will make the procedure clear.room (space) takes less room, not enough room to turn round (in) make room for (figurative) room for improvement 12%come to my room, bedroom, sitting room;drawing room, bathroom 83%(plural = suite, lodgings) my room in college to let rooms 2% It can be easily observed from the sem count above that the mning part of a house (sitting room, drawing room,) makes up 83% of all occurrences of the w room & should be included in the list of mnings to be learned by the beginners, whereas the mning suite, lodgings is not essential & makes up only 2% of all occurrences of this w.


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