Identify describe explain

The features chosen from any text will be those which characterise the piece as to its function. They will be used by the analyst to prove the initial statement which is made about the linguistic nature of the text as awhole.

This method purports to be fairly scientific. A hypothesis is stated and then proved. It is auseful discipline which encourages logical thought and can be transferred to many other areas of academic study.

This is one reason why the discipline of stylistic analysis is so useful: it can be applied to a variety of subjects.


Functional Styles

Functional styles are classified into bookish and colloquial. The group of bookish styles embraces the style of official documents, the style of scientific prose, the newspaper style, the publicistic style and the belletristic style. The croup of colloquial styles includes the literary colloquial style, the informal colloquial style and substandard speech style.

The speaker resorts to a certain functional style due to such extralingual factors: the character of the situation in which communication takes place (official, ceremonial, informal, private or other); the relations between the communicants (formal, official, friendly, hostile, spontaneous); the aim of communication (transference of specific information, emotional attitudes, establishment of business contacts, etc. ); oral or written communication. The styleof official documents.This style aims at establishing, developing and controlling business relations between individuals and organizations. Being devoid of expressiveness, it is fully impersonal, rational and pragmatic. Its special language forms are rather peculiar. The graphical level of this style is distinguished by specific rules of making inscriptions, using capital letters and abbreviations. The lexical level is characterized by domination of bookish, borrowed, archaic and obsolescent words, professional terms and cliches, such as "aviso" (), "interest-free" (), "fidejussor" (), "flagrante delicto" ( ), "status quo" ( ), "", "", " ", " ...", " ...", " ...", " ". The morphological features of the style are such: the usage of obsolescent mood forms (Subjunctive I and the Suppositional), wide use of non-finite forms of the verb, impersonal, anticipatory and indefinite pronouns. The syntactic level is distinguished by long and super-long sentences of all structural types, always two-member and non-elliptical, complicated by complexes of secondary predication, detach-ments, parenthetic insertions and passive constructions.

The style of scientific prose. This style serves as an instrument for Promoting scientific ideas and exchanging scientific information among peo-p e- It is as bookish and formal as the style of official documents, that is why

both styles have much in common. To graphical peculiarities of the style of scientific prose belong number- or letter-indexed paragraphing, a developed system of headlines, titles and subtitles, footnotes, pictures, tables, schemes and formulae. great part of the vocabulary is constituted by special terms of international origin. The sphere of computer technologies alone enlarges the word-stock of different language vocabularies by thousands of new terms, such as "modem", "monitor", "interface", "hard disk", "floppy disk", "scanner", "CD- drive", "driver", "fragmentation", "formatting", "software", "hardware", etc. Most of such terms are borrowed from English into other languages with preservation of their original form and sound- 1 ing (, , , , , , ). The rest are translated by way of loan-translation ( , ) and in other ways (software - , hardware - ). Adopted foreign terms submit to the grammar rules of the Russian and Ukrainian languages while forming their derivatives and compounds (, , ). The scientific vocabulary also abounds in set-phrases and cliches which introduce specific flavour of book-ishness and scientific character into the text (We proceed from assumption that ... , One can observe that... , As a matter of fact, ... , As is generally

accepted, ... ,).

One of the most noticeable morphological features of the scientific
prose style is the use of the personal pronoun "we" in the meaning of '7".
The scientific "we" is called "the plural of modesty". Syntax does not
differ much from that of the style of official documents. ,

The newspaper style. The basic communicative function of this style is to inform people about all kinds of events and occurrences which may be of some interest to them. Newspaper materials may be classified into three groups: brief news reviews, informational articles and advertisements. The vocabulary of the newspaper style consists mostly of neutral common literary words, though it also contains many political, social and economic terms (gross output, per capita production, gross revenue, apartheid, single European currency, political summit, commodity exchange, tactical nu-\ clear missile, nuclear nonproliferation treaty). There are lots of abbreviations (GDP - gross domestic product, EU - European Union, WTO -\ World Trade Organization, UN - United Nations Organization, NATO -North Atlantic Treaty Organization, HIV - human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS - acquired immune deficiency syndrome, IMF - International

Monetary Fund, W. W. W. - World Wide Web). The newspaper vocabularies of the Russian and Ukrainian languages are overloaded with borrowings and international words (', , , , , , -, , ), that is why the abundance of foreign suffixes (-, -, -, -, etc. ) is a conspicuous morphological fpaturp of the Russian and Ukrainian newspaper style. One of unattractive features of the newspaper style is the overabundance of cliches. A cliche is a hackneyed phrase or expression. The phrase may once have been fresh or striking, but it has become tired through overuse. Cliches usually suggest mental laziness or the lack of original thought.

> Traditional examples of cliches are expressions such as it takes the biscuit, back to square oneand a taste of his own medicine.

Current favourites (in the UK) include the bottom line is ..., a whole different ball game, living in the real world, a level playing field,and moving the goalposts.

Cliches present a temptation, because they often seem to be just what is required to make an effect. They do the trick.They hit the nail on the head.They are just what the doctor ordered.[See what I mean?]

Here is a stunning compilation, taken from a provincial newspaper. The example is genuine, but the names have been changed to protect the innocent.[That's a deliberate example!]

By their very naturecabarets tend to be a bit of a hit and missaffair. And Manchester's own 'Downtown Cabaret' is ample proofof that. When it was good it was very good, and when it was bad it wasawful. Holding this curate's eggtogether was John Beswick acting as compere and keeping the hotchpotch of sketches and songs running along smoothly.And his professionalism shone throughas he kept his hand on the tillerand steered the shown througha difficult audience with his own brandof witticism. Local playwright Alan Olivers had previously worked like a Trojanand managed to marshal the talentsof a bevy ofManchester's rising stars.

Syntax of the newspaper style as well as syntax of any other bookish svle is a diversity of all structural types of sentences (simple, complex, com-


pound and mixed) with a developed system of clauses connected with each other by all types of syntactic connections. The coating of bookishness is created by multicomponent attributive noun groups, participial, infinitive and gerundi-al word-combinations and syntactic constructions of secondary predication.

Advertising newspaper materials (ads) may be classified and non-classified. Classified ads are arranged topicwise in certain rubrics: "Births", "Deaths", "Marriages", "Sale", "Purchase", "", "", "", "", "", etc. Non-classified ads integrate all topics. Ads are arranged according to stereotyped rules of economizing on space. Due to this all non-informative speech segments are omitted intentionally, e. g.: Births. On November 1, at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, to Barbara and John Culhane ~ a son. . . . . 7. . 345-44-65.

Graphically, the newspaper style is notable for the system of headlines. The headlines have formed themselves into a specific genre. They combine three functions: gripping readers' attention, providing information and evaluating the contents of the article. To perform these functions newspaper headlines must be sensational, expressive and informative. Sentences in headlines tend to be short, one-member or elliptical, affirmative, negative, interrogative and exclamatory.

The publicistic style. This style falls into the following variants: the oratory style (speeches, lectures and reports), the style of radio and TV programs, the style of essays and journalistic articles. The most essential feature of the oratory style is the direct contact of the speaker with the audience. To establish and maintain this contact, the speaker continuously resorts to various language means of address: ladies and gentlemen, honourable guests, dear colleagues, dear friends, etc. Public speeches, radio and TV commentaries are crammed with syntactic stylistic devises of repetitions (direct, synonymic, anaphoric, epiphoric, framing, linking), polysyndeton, and parallelisms. These devices aim at making information persuasive. Journalistic articles and essays deal with political, social, economic, moral, ethical, philosophical, religious, educational, cultural and popular-scientific problems. The choice of language means depends on the subject described. Scientific articles and essays contain more neutral words and constructions and less expressive means than articles and essays on humanitarian problems.

The belletristic style. This style attracts linguists most of all because th< authors of books use the whole gamma of expressive means and stylist! devises while creating their images. The function of this style is cognitive

esthetic. The belletristic style embraces prose, drama and poetry. The lan-ua%e of emotive prose is extremely diverse. Most of the books contain the authors' speech and the speech of protagonists. The authors' speech embod-es all stylistic embellishments which the system of language tolerates. The speech of protagonists is just the reflection of people's natural communication which they carry out by means of the colloquial style. The language of drama is also a stylization of the colloquial style when colloquial speech is not only an instrument for rendering information but an effective tool for the description of personages. The most distinctive feature of the language of poetry is its elevation. The imagery of poems and verses is profound, implicit and very touching. It is created by elevated words (highly literary, poetic, barbaric, obsolete or obsolescent), fresh and original tropes, inversions, repetitions and parallel constructions. The pragmatic effect of poetic works may be enhanced by perfected rhymes, metres, rhymes and stanzas.

The colloquial styles. These styles comply with the regularities and norms of oral communication. The vocabulary of the literary colloquial style comprises neutral, bookish and literary words, though exotic words and colloquialisms are no exception. It is devoid of vulgar, slangy and dialectal lexical units. Reduction of grammatical forms makes the style morphologically distinguished, putting it in line with other colloquial styles. Sentences of literary colloquial conversation tend to be short and elliptical, with clauses connected asyndetically.

The vocabulary of the informal colloquial style is unofficial. Besides neutral words, it contains lots of words with connotative meanings. Expressiveness of informal communication is also enhanced by extensive use of stylistic devises. The speaker chooses between the literary or informal colloquial style taking into account the following situational conditions: aim of communication, place of communication, presence or absence of strangers, personal relations, age factor, sex factor, etc.

One of the variants of the informal colloquial style is the dialect. Dialects are regional varieties of speech which relate to a geographical area. The term dialect used to refer to deviations from Standard English which were used by groups of speakers. Political awareness has now given linguists toe current concept of a dialect as any developed speech system. Standard English itself is therefore now considered to be a dialect of English - equal in status with regional dialects such as Scottish or social dialects, or Black En-8Hsh. The concept of dialect embraces all aspects of a language from gram-^" to vocabulary. Nowadays linguists take a descriptive view of all lan-

;uage phenomena. They do not promote the notion of the superiority of Stan-lard English. This is not to say that Standard English and Received Pronunci-ition are considered equal to dialectal forms, but certainly attitudes are be-

:oming more liberal.

Writers have for centuries attempted to represent dialectal utterances in their work. Shakespeare often gave his yokels such items. Snout the tinker in "A Midsummer Night's Dream" says "Bv> lakin, a parlous fear". The novelist D. H. Lawrence represented the Nottinghamshire dialect in many of his novels by interspersing Standard English with utterances such as "Come into th'ut" spoken by Mellors in "Lady Chatterley's Lover". Some contemporary regional dialect forms are ones which have remained as such after being eliminated from what is now Standard English. An example of this is the Scottish kirtle which was replaced in Standard English during the Old English

period by skirt.

The lowest level in the hierarchy of colloquial styles is occupied by substandard or special colloquial English. At the first glance, substandard English is a chaotic mixture of non-grammatical or contaminated speech patterns and vulgar words which should be criticized without regret. However, a detailed analysis of these irregularities shows that they are elements of a system, which is not deprived of rationality. For example, the universal grammatical form ain't is a simplified substitute for am (is, are) not, was (were) not, have (has, had) not, shall (will) not. there is (are, was, were) not: " ain't sharin' no time. 1 ain't takin' nobody with me, neither"

(J. Steinbeck).

"It ain't got no regular name" (E. Caldwell).

"All 1 say ain't no buildings like that on no Florida Keys"

(E. Hemingway). Economical means of substandard English coexist with redundant or ple^

onastic forms and contaminated syntactic structures: "Then let's us have us a drink" (T. Capote). "1 think it more better if you go to her, sir" (S. Maugham). "1 wants my wife. I needs her at home" (W. Faulkner). "Dey was two white mens 1 heerd about" (W. Styron). "Young folks and womens, they aint cluttered" (W. Faulkner). "1 want you guys should listen to Doc, here" (J. Steinbeck). "I used to could play the fiddle" (T. Capote). Substandard English speech abounds in obscene words marked in dictic naries by the symbol "taboo", vulgarisms (bloody buggering hell, danme

home-wrecking dancing devil), slangy words (busthead = inferior or cheap whisky, liquor, or wine which results in hangover; cabbage = money, banknotes, paper money; frog-eater = a Frenchman; a pin-up girl = a sexually attractive young woman, usually a movie celebrity, a model or the like) and specific cliches (dead and gone, good and well, lord and master, far and away, this here ...).

Substandard English is used by millions of people in English speaking countries. It is a conspicuous indicator of low language culture and educational level. Being introduced into books, it becomes a picturesque means of protagonists' characterization. Russian and Ukrainian substandard languages have the same features. Compare: , , . , , , 245 , : , , , . It is not an easy thing for a translator to provide sufficient equivalence of translation in case with substandard languages. He must be a great expert on both the source and target language substandard resources.

The binary division of functional styles into bookish and colloquial is generally accepted in the soviet and post-soviet stylistic school. In British stylistic theories we also meet two general terms which cover the whole set of particular functional styles: Standard English and Substandard English. Standard English embraces all bookish substyles and the literary colloquial style. Substandard English includes the informal colloquial style and special colloquial English. The term Standard English, as viewed by the British scholars, refers to a dialect which has acquired the status of representing the English language.

CHAPTER 3 Stylistic Lexicology

Stylistic lexicology deals with words which make up people's lexicon, vocabulary or lexis is usefully distinguished from grammar in textual analysis, ne grammar of any utterance is the underlying structure. The vocabulary is { immediate content or subject-matter of a statement. The passage which Allows contains a normal mixture of grammatical items and vocabulary items:

bananas are cheap and plentiful and can be used in many interesting ■vays, either as desserts or in main meals. With the grammatical items removed, the sentence still makes some sense: Bananas cheap plentiful used many interesting ways either desserts main meals. Without the lexical items however, the grammar words mean nothing as a sequence: are and

can be in as or in.

Vocabulary is one level of stylistic analysis, along with phonology, graphology, grammar and semantics. In analyzing the vocabulary of a text or a speech, patterns of usage would be the subject of comment. For instance, the frequent occurrence of technical terms in car repair manual, or of emotive words in a tabloid newspaper article.

The majority of English words are neutral. Neutral words do not have stylistic connotations. Their meanings are purely denotative. They are such words as table, man, day, weather, to go, good, first, something, enough. Besides neutral vocabulary, there are two great stylistically marked layers of words in English word-stock: literary vocabulary and colloquial vocabulary. Literary vocabulary includes bookish words, terms, poetic and archaic words, barbarisms and neologisms. Colloquial vocabulary embraces conversational lexis, jargonisms, professionalisms, dialectal, slangy and vulgar words.

Neutral words form the lexical backbone of all functional styles. They are understood and accepted by all English-speaking people. Being the main source! of synonymy and polysemy, neutral words easily produce new meanings and| stylistic variants. Compare: mouse = 1) a small furry animal with a long tail; 2} mouse = a small device that you move in order to do things on a computer! screen; 3) mouse = someone who is quiet and prefers not to be noticed.

Bookish words are mainly used in writing and in polished speech. They form stylistic opposition to their colloquial synonyms. Compare: infant ( ish) = child (neutral) = fad (colloquial); parent (bookish) = father (neutral) =\

daddy (colloquial).

Terms belong to particular sciences. Consequently, the domain of their!

usage is the scientific functional style. The denotative meanings of terms are

clearly defined. A classical term is monosemantic and has no synonyms. Terms

of general nature are interdisciplinary (approbation, anomaly.

tion, definition, monograph, etc. ). Semantically narrow terms belong to I

definite branch of science (math.: differential, vector, hypotenuse, leg (oj

a triangle), equation, logarithm). When used in other styles, terms produce

different stylistic effects. They may sound humoristically or make speed|

"clever" and "scientific-like". Academic study has its own terms too. Terrn^

such as palatalization or velarization (phonetics), discourse analysis (sty-listics), hegemony (political philosophy) and objective correlative (literary studies) would not be recognizable by an everyday reader, though they might be understood by someone studying the same subject.

Terms should be used with precision, accuracy, and above all restraint. Eric Partridge quotes the following example to illustrate the difference between a statement in technical and non-technical form: Chlorophyll makes food by photosynthesis = Green leaves build up food with the aid of tight. When terms are used to show off or impress readers or listeners, they are likely to create the opposite effect. There is not much virtue in using terms such as aerated beverages instead of fizzy drinks. These simply cause disruptions in tone and create a weak style. Here is an even more pretentious example of such weakness: Enjoy your free sample of our moisturizing cleansing bar (in other words - our soap).

The stylistic function of poetic words is to create poetic images and make speech elevated. Their nature is archaic. Many of poetic words have lost their original charm and become hackneyed conventional symbols due to their constant repetition in poetry (, , , , (), ( ), , , , , , , , , , , , ).

It is a well-known fact that the word-stock of any language is constantly changing and renewing. Old words die and new words appear. Before disappearing, a word undergoes the stages of being obsolescent, obsolete and archaic. The beginning of the aging process of a word is marked by decrease in its usage. Rarely used words are called obsolescent. To English obsolescent words belong the pronoun though and its forms thee, thy and thine, the verbs with the ending -est {though makest) and the ending -th {he maketh), and other historical survivals. Obsolete words have gone completely out of usage though they are still recognized by the native speakers (methinks = it seems to me; nay = no). Archaic words belong to Old English and are not ^cognized nowadays. The main function of old words is to create a realistic background to historical works of literature.

Barbarisms and foreignisms have the same origin. They are borrowings from other languages. The greater part of barbarisms was borrowed Into English from French and Latin {parvenu - ; protege -; a propos - ; beau monde - ; de novo *; alter ego - ; datum - , ). -

larisms are assimilated borrowings. Being part of the English word-stock, hey are fixed in dictionaries. Foreignisms are non-assimilated borrowings >ccasionally used in speech for stylistic reasons. They do not belong to the Bnglish vocabulary and are not registered by lexicographers. The main fund ;ion of barbarisms and foreignisms is to create a realistic background to the stories about foreign habits, customs, traditions and conditions of life.

Neologisms are newly born words. Most of them are terms. The layer of terminological neologisms has been rapidly growing since the start of the technological revolution. The sphere of the Internet alone gave birth to thousands of new terms which have become international (network, server, browser, e-mail, provider, site, Internet Message Access Protocol, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, Microsoft Outlook Express, Internet Explorer, Netscape Communicator, etc). The Internet is an immense virtual world with its own language and its people, good or bad. Hacker means "someone who uses a computer to connect to other people's computers secretly and often illegally in order to find or change information". Spammer means "someone who sends emails to large numbers of people on the Internet, especially when these are not wanted". Recent discoveries in biochemistry, genetic engineering, plasma physics, microelectronics, oceanography, cosmonautics and other sciences demanded new words to name new concepts and ideas. The vocabulary of our everyday usage is also being enlarged by neologisms. Bancomatj, means "a European system of automatic cash-ejecting machines". Bank card means "a small plastic card that you use for making payments or for getting,

money from the bank".

Common colloquial vocabulary is part of Standard English word-stock. It borders both on neutral vocabulary and on special colloquial vocabulary! Colloquialisms are familiar words and idioms used in informal speech and^ writing, but unacceptable in polite conversation or business correspondence] Compare standard speech sentence "Sir, you speak clearly and to the\ point" and its colloquial equivalent "Friend, you talk plain and hit the

right on the head".

There are some specific ways of forming colloquial words and gramj matical fusions. The most typical of them are contraction (demo - demon] stration, comp = comprehensive school, disco = discotheque, pub ~ publiA house, ad - advertisement), amalgamation of two words in a single on< (s'long = so long, c'mon = come on, gimme - give me, wanna = want to, gonna = going to, don't = do not, he's he has/is), affixation (missy = miss, girlie ~ girl, Scotty ~ Scotchman), compounding, composing and blend

. (legman = reporter, hanky-panky = children's tricks, yellow-belly -coward, motel = a hotel for people who are travelling by car).

The most productive way of building colloquial words in Russian and Ukrainian is derivation. Lots of suffixes and prefixes convert neutral words into conversational: = , , , , , , ; - , , , . Many of colloquial words are extremely emotional and image-bearing. For example, the interjections oops, oh, gee, wow, alas are capable of rendering dozens of contextual subjective modal meanings, such as gladness, rapture, disappointment, resentment, admiration, etc. Not less expressive are Russian and Ukrainian colloquial words. Compare: , , , , , . Expressive colloquial words form long chains of synonyms: = , , , , , , .

Jargonisms are non-standard words used by people of a certain asocial group to keep their intercourse secret. There are jargons of criminals, convicts, gamblers, vagabonds, souteneurs, prostitutes, drug addicts and the like. The use of jargon conveys the suggestion that the speaker and the listener enjoy a special "fraternity" which is closed for outsiders, because outsides do not understand the secret language. Here are some words from American and Russian drug takers' jargon: white stuff = cocaine or morphine; candy = cocaine; snifter = a cocaine addict; boxed, spaced out, bombed, junked up or charged up = being affected by drugs; candy man = drug seller; cap = a capsule with a narcotic; jab-off = an injection of a narcotic; pin-shot = an injection of a drug made with a safety pin and an eye-dropper instead of a hypodermic needle; mainliner = a drug addict who takes his narcotics by intravenous injection; - ; = , = , . Social contradictions of our life gave rise to such word combinations as " ", " ". Eventually, some jargonisms pass into standard speech. This is the case with the Russian word "" which Penetrated into Standard Russian from prison jargon due to its expressiveness and topicality of meaning.

Eric Partridge, an authority on the subject, identifies a number of reasons ror the creation and use of jargon. In his opinion, people resort to jargon to be efferent, startling, or original; to display one's membership of a group; to be

:retive or to exclude others; to enrich the stock of language; to establish a endly rapport with others; to be irreverent or humorous.

Professionalisms are term-like words. They are used and understood members of a certain trade or profession. Their function is to rationalize ofcssional communication and make it economical. This is achieved due to broad semantic structure of professional terms, which makes them eco->mical substitutes for lengthy Standard English vocabulary equivalents. Com-ire: scalpel = a small sharp knife used by a doctor for doing an oper-ion: round pliers = a metal tool with round ends that looks like a rong pair of scissors, used for holding small objects or for bending id cutting wire; ( ); ( ), ( ). The foreman in a garage does not need to rite on a mechanic's worksheet: "Please regulate the device which pro-ides a constant supply of petrol to the inlet manifold of the engine". He writes: "Adjust the carburetor".

Dialecticisms are words used by people of a certain community living in certain territory. In US Southern dialect one might say: "Cousin, y'all talk] nighty fine" which means "Sir, you speak English well". In ethnic-immi-rant dialects the same sentence will sound as "Paisano, you speek good\ he English" or "Landsman, your English is plenty all right already".

Slang is non-standard vocabulary understood and used by the whole | tation. Slang is sometimes described as the language of sub-cultures or the anguage of the streets. Linguistically, slang can be viewed as a sub-dialect. Itj s hardly used in writing - except for stylistic effect. People resort to slangj because it is more forceful, vivid and expressive than standard usages. Slangy | words are rough, often scornful, estimative and humorous. They are com-| pletely devoid of intelligence, moral, virtue, hospitality, sentimentality and other human values.

Slang prefers short words, especially monosyllables. Vulgar or obscene words may be viewed as part of slang. The most popular images of slang are food, money, sex and sexual attraction, people's appearances and characters. Because it is not standard, formal or acceptable under all conditions, slang is usually considered vulgar, impolite, or boorish. However, the vast majority of slangy words and expressions are neither taboo, vulgar, derogatory, nor of-) fensive in meaning, sound, or image. Picturesque metaphor, metonymy, hy-i perbole and irony make slangy words spicy. Look how long, diverse and ex-J prcssive the chain of slangy synonyms denoting "money" is: ackers. cly,\

0ie> gelt, moo, moolah, mopus, oof, spondulicks, queer, boot, chuck, hardstujf, lettuce, lolly, boodle, sea-coal, green goods, hay, shoestring, ante, bread, ducats, dumps, swag, bean, blunt, crap, dough, haddock, ochre, rubbish, salad, soap, splosh, sugar, chink, gob, poke, iron, balsam, jack, loot, pile, wad, dust, tin, brass, fat, rocks, chips, corn, red, sand, bundle, oil, shells.

> Some forms of slang change very rapidly, for various reasons.

Teenage slang changes rapidly because people are teenagers for a short period of time. For example, in the early 1990s the term used to express enthusiastic approval was 'Ace'. Now this would be considered rather dated. It has been replaced by 'Sound' which itself will soon be supplanted by whatever the current teenage culture decides is appropriate.

'Smashing!' and 'Super!' the teenage slang of Enid Blyton stories of the 1930s and 1940s is now used to parody the period and the attitudes from which they sprang. Intrinsically however, it is no different from today's terms.

One important function of teenage slang is to create an identity which is distinct from the general adult world. Teenagers for this reason do not generally approve of parents or teachers using their slang terms. This defeats the object of what is essentially a group 'code'.

Thus new terms are generated every couple of years. It is interesting that the main slang items are adjectives for extreme approval or extreme disapproval.

Idioms. An idiom is a fixed phrase which is only meaningful as a whole. All languages contain idiomatic phrases. Native speakers learn them and remember them as a complete item, rather than a collection of separate words: a red herring = a false trail, raining cats and dogs - raining very hard, a fly in the ointment = spoiling the effect.

Idioms often break semantic conventions and grammatical logic - as in I'll eat my head (I'll be amazed if...). The object of the verb "to eat" is conventionally something edible, but as part of this idiom it is something definitely inedible. Non-native speakers find the idiomatic side of any language difficult to grasp. Native speakers of a language acquire idioms from a very early stage in their linguistic development.

The translator should bear in mind the fact that idioms are generally ipossible to translate between languages, although some families of lan-ages use idioms based on identical ideas. In French, for example, the idi-natic phrase " vieux" is parallel in its meaning with the English "old ap", and in Russian the phraseologism " " is parallel with

e English "the lion's share".

Idioms very often contain metaphors, but not always. For example, How you do is an idiomatic greeting but it is not a metaphor. Idioms are not ways used or recognized by the whole of the language community. Sub-roups of speakers employ idioms peculiar to themselves. Teenagers, occu-ational groups, leisure groups, and gender groups all employ idioms or spe-ial phrases. These will mean something within the context of the group and s communication: He was caught leg-before-wicket (sport). She was at er sister's hen-party (gender).

CHAPTER 4 Morphological Stylistics

Morphological stylistics deals with morphological expressive means

stylistic devices. Words of all parts of speech have a great stylistic potenti

Beingplaced in an unusual syntagmatic environment which changes their canonized grammatical characteristics and combinability, they acquire stylistic significance. The central notion of morphological stylistics is the notion of, transposition. Transposition is a divergence between the traditional us-\ age of a neutral word and its situational (stylistic) usage.

Words of every part of speech are united by their semantic and grammatical properties. General lexico-grammatical meaning of nouns is substan-tivity, i. e. the ability to denote objects or abstract notions. Due to the diverse, nature of substantivity, nouns are divided into proper, common, concrete, abstract, material and collective. Cases of transposition emerge, in particular, when concrete nouns are used according to the rules of proper nouns usage, or vice versa. It results in creation of stylistic devises named antonomasia or personification. For example: The Pacific Ocean has a cruel soul or John will never be a Shakespeare.

Besides general lexico-grammatical meaning, nouns possess grammatical meanings of the category of number and the category of case. These meanings may also be used for stylistic objectives. According to the category of number, nouns are classified into countable and uncountable. Each group has its own regularities of usage. When these regularities are broken for stylistic reasons, speech becomes expressive. Uncountable singularia tantum nouns, or countable nouns in the singular, occasionally realizing the meaning of more than oneness, evoke picturesque connotations: to hunt tiger = to hunt tigers; to keep chick = to keep chicks; snow ~ snows; sand = sands; water = waters; time = times; = ; = . Normally, the genitive case form is a form of animate nouns. When inanimate nouns are used in this form, their initial meaning of inanimateness is transposed. In such cases they render the meanings of time or distance (mile's walk, hour's time), part of a whole (book's page, table's leg), or qualitative characteristics (plan's failure, winter's snowdrifts, music's voice).

Stylistic potential of nouns is significantly reinforced by transpositions in the usage of articles as noun-determiners. Such transpositions occur against generally accepted normative postulates which run: articles are not used with names of persons and animals, some classes of geographical names, abstract nouns and names of material. Uncommon usage of articles aims at importing specific shades of meaning into speech. Thus, the indefinite article combined with names of persons may denote one representative of a family (Mary will never be a Brown), a person unknown to the communicants (Jack was robbed by a Smith), a temporary feature of character (That day Jane was different. It was a silly Jane). Not less expressive are cases when the name of a person is used as a common noun preceded by the indefinite article: Mike has the makings of a Bvron. Stylistic usage of the definite article takes place when names of persons are modified by limiting attributes (You are not the John whom I married), when a proper name denotes the whole family (The Browns are good people), or when a name of a person is modified by a descriptive attribute denoting a permanent feature of character (I entered the room. There she was the clever Polly). Suchlike deviations in the usage of articles are possible with other semantic classes of nouns: geographical names, abstract and material nouns.

Transposition of verbs is even more varied than that of nouns. It is ex-Plained by a greater number of grammatical categories the meanings of which ^ay be transposed. Most expressive are tense forms, mood forms and voice

brms. One of peculiar features of English tense forms is their polysemantism. rhe same form may realize various meanings in speech. Deviation from the general (most frequently realized) meaning makes verbs stylistically coloured, "ommonly, the present continuous tense denotes an action which takes place it the moment of speaking. But it may also denote a habitual action (John is :onstantly grumbling), an action which occupies a long period of time (Sam is wooing Mary now), and an action of the near future (Pete is starting a new life tomorrow). In such cases the present continuous tense becomes synonymous with the present or future indefinite. But there is a difference. While the sentence "John constantly grumbles" is a mere statement, the sentence "John is constantly grumbling" introduces the negative connotations of irritation, condemnation, regret, sadness and others.

There is a rule that verbs of sense perception and mental activity are not used in the continuous tense forms. This rule is often broken by the speaker] intentionally or subconsciously. In both cases verbal forms convey additional stylistic meanings of subjective modality (1 am seeing you = lam not blind;] I am understanding you = You need not go into further details; I am\ feeling your touch = So tender you are, etc. ).

One of peculiar verbal transpositions is the change of temporary planes of narration when events of the past or future are described by present tense] forms. Such transposition brightens the narration, raises its emotional tensionJ expresses intrigue, makes the continuity of events visual and graphic: It was\ yesterday and looked this way. The perpetrator comes to his victim, takem a long dagger out of his inner pocket and stabs the poor man right into\ his belly without saying a word. The man falls down like a sack, a founA tain of blood spurting from the wound.

Transposition is not the only way to make verbs expressive. A good many verbal forms are expressive in themselves. The imperative mood forms not just commands, invitations, requests or prohibitions. They are a perfect] means of rendering an abundance of human emotions. The sentence Just] come to me now may contextually imply love or hate, threat or warning, promise or desire. A wide range of subjunctive mood forms offers a good] stylistic choice of synonymous ways to verbalize one and the same idea. Compare the following synonymous pairs of sentences: It is time for me to\ go = It is time that I went; It is necessary for him to come = It is necesA sary that he come; We must go now not to be late We must go now lesvL we be late; Let it be = So be it. The first sentence of each pair is stylistically] neutral while the second sentence is either bookish or obsolescent. In manyJ contexts passive verbal forms are more expressive than their active counter-]

arts. Compare: A round table occupied the centre of the room = The centre of the room was occupied by a round table; They answered him nothing = He was answered nothing; They forgave him his rudeness was forgiven his rudeness.

General lexico-grammatical meaning of adjectives is that of qualitative-ness. Qualitative adjectives are always estimative, that is why they are used as epithets (picturesque' view, idiotic shoe-laces, crazy bicycle, tremen-doiis achievements) and can form degrees of comparison. Relative adjectives normally do not form degrees of comparison and serve as logical (non-stylistic) attributes (red colour, Italian car, dead man). However, they may be occasionally transposed into qualitative. Such transposition imports originality and freshness in speech: This is the reddest colour I've ever seen in my life; "Ferrari" is the most Italian car which you can meet in this remote corner of the world; Garry was the deadest men ever present in that ambitious society. Expressiveness of adjectives may be as well enhanced by non-grammatical transpositions in the formation of the degrees of comparison, when well-known rules of their formation are intentionally violated: My bride was becoming beautifidler and beautifuller: You are the bestest friend I've ever met.

Expressive devices may be created by transposition of pronouns. When objective forms of personal pronouns are used predicatively instead of nominative forms, sentences obtain colloquial marking (// is him: It is her; It is me: It is them: It is us). The meaning of the pronoun / may be contextually rendered by the pronouns we, you, one, he, she and others. The so-called "scientific we" is used in scientific prose instead of / for modesty reasons. The same replacement in a routine conversation creates a humoristic effect (a tipsy man coming home after a workday and addressing his wife cheerfully, about himself: Meet us dear! We have come!). When the pronoun you is replaced by the pronoun one, the statement becomes generalized, its information being projected not only to the listeners, but to the speaker himself: One should understand, that smoking is really harmful! When / is substituted by he, she, or nouns (the guy, the chap, the fellow, the fool, the girl, etc), the speaker either tries to analyse his own actions with the eyes of a stranger, externally, or he is ironical about himself. Stylistic effects may also e achieved by the usage of archaic pronouns: the personal pronoun thou (2 Person singular) and its objective form three, the possessive pronoun thy and 'ts absolute form thine, the reflexive pronoun thyself. These obsolete pronouns create the atmosphere of solemnity and elevation, or bring us back to ^cient times.


cuch an accord is met at the end of two parallel lines in verses. Rhyme is a ound organizer, uniting lines into stanzas. Rhyme is created according to everal patterns. Vertically, there are such rhymes: adjacent (aa, bb), cross tab ab) and reverse (ab, ba). According to the variants of stress in the words hein rhymed, rhymes are classified into male (the last syllables of the rhymed words are stressed), female (the next syllables to the last are stressed) and jacixli£ (tne lmrc* syllables from the end are stressed).

Rhythm is a recurring stress pattern in poetry. It is an even alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables. Lines in verses are built with poetic feet. A foot is a combination of one stressed and one or two unstressed syllables. The most popular poetic feet are trochaic foot, iambus, dactyl, amphibrach, and anapest. A detailed description and bright examples of the mechanisms of versification can be found in theoretically oriented manuals of stylistics, such as /. Arnold. Stylistics of Modern English. - Moscow, 1990; I. Gal-perin. Stylistics. - Moscow, 1977 and others.

Instrumentation is the art of selecting and combining sounds in order to make utterances expressive and melodic. Instrumentation unites three basic stylistic devices: alliteration, assonance and onomatopoeia.

Alliteration is a stylistically motivated repetition of consonants. The repeated sound is often met at the beginning of words: She sells sea shells on the sea shore. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper. Alliteration is often used in children's rhymes, because it emphasizes rhythm and makes memorizing easier:

Baa haa blacksheep

Have you any wool?

Yes_ sir, no sir.

Three bagsfulL

The same effect is employed in advertising, so that slogans will stick in people's minds: Snap, crackle and pop^_h\\\tera\.\on is used much more in poetry than in prose. It is also used in proverbs and sayings ( , ; , ), set expressions, football chants, and advertising jingles.

Assonance is a stylistically motivated repetition of stressed vowels. The repeated sounds stand close together to create a euphonious effect and rhyme: ihe rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain. We love to spoon beneath the mQQ/i in June. Just like alliteration, assonance makes texts easy to memo-nze. It is also popular in advertising for the same reason. Assonance is sel-

35 I

iom met as an independent stylistic device. It is usually combined with alliter- ] ation, rhyming, and other devices:

, .



. (. . )

Onomatopoeia is a combination of sounds which imitate natural sounds: wind wailing, sea murmuring, rustling of leaves, bursts of thunder, etc. Words which represent this figure of speech have aural similarity with the things they describe: buzz = , roar - , bang = , I hiss = , sizzle = , twitter - , pop = , swish = , burble - , I cuckoo = , splash - . Animal calls and sounds of I insects are evoked onomatopoeically in all languages. For example, cock-a-doodle-do! is conventionally the English representation for the crowing of acock. Interestingly, the Russians and the French represent this imitation as and cocorico correspondingly, which is significantly different from the English variant, although logic tells us that the roster's cry is the same across the world. It means that onomatopoeia is not an exact reproduction of ] natural sounds but a subjective phenomenon.

Onomatopoeia is used for emphasis or stylistic effect. It is extensively featured in children's rhymes and poetry in general.

Expressiveness of speech may be also significantly enhanced by such phonetic means as tone. To the linguist "tone" means the quality of sound J produced by the voice in uttering words. In a general sense, tone is the attitude of the speaker or writer as revealed in the choice of vocabulary or the j intonation of speech. Written or spoken communication might be described as having a tone which is, for instance, ironic, serious, flippant, threatening, light-1 hearted, or pessimistic. Attitude expressed in tone may be rendered consciously or unconsciously. It could be said that there is no such thing as a text or verbal utterance without a tone. In most cases, tone is either taken for granted, or perceived unconsciously.

Basic notions of graphic expressive means are punctuation, orthography or spelling, text segmentation, and type. Punctuation is used in writing to show the stress, rhythm and tone of the spoken word. It also aims at clarify-

no the meaning of sentences. There are such common marks of punctuation: the full stop [.], the comma [, J, the colon [: ], the semicolon [; ], brackets )], dash [ - ], hyphen [ - ], the exclamation mark [ ! ], the oblique stroke [/ ]x* the interrogative (question) mark [ ? ], inverted commas (quotation marks) [" "], suspension marks [...], the apostrophe [ ' ].

> Miscellaneous remarkson punctuation.

Many aspects of punctuation are ultimately a matter of personal preference and literary style.

The general tendency in most public writing today is to minimisethe amount of punctuation used.

There are also minor differences in practice between the UK and the USA.

The suggestions made above are based generally on conventions in the UK.

Double punctuation ["What's the matter!?"] is rarely used, except in very informal writing such as personal letters or diaries.

The combination of colon-plus-dash [: ] is never necessary. Some people use this [it's called 'the pointer'] to indicate that a list will follow, but the colon alone should be sufficient.

The importance of punctuation can be illustrated by comparing the two following letters. In both cases, the text is the same. It's the punctuation which makes all the difference!

Dear John:

I want a man who knows what love is all about. You are generous, kind, thoughtful. People who are not like you admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me for other men. I yearn for you. I have no feelings whatsoever when we're apart. I can be forever happy will you let me be yours? Gloria

Dear John:

I want a man who knows what love is. All about you are generous, kind, thoughtful people, who are not like you. Admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me. For other men, I yearn. For you, I have no feelings whatsoever. When we're apart, I can be forever happy. Will you let me be?Yours, Gloria



The full stop signals the end of a declarative sentence. It indicates a strong pause. It is used most commonly at the end of a complete sentence. Besides that, it may be used as an instrument for dividing a text or a sentence into very small segments to underline the dynamic character of events or to create a stylistic device of parceling. There are the following peculiarities in the usage of full stops:

> Fullstops are commonly placed after abbreviations:
ibid. No. 1 ff. e.g.

The stop is normally placed inside quotation marks but outside brackets:

"What joy we had that particular day."

Profits declined (despite increased sales).However, if the quotation is part of another statement, the full stop goes outside the quote marks:

Mrs Higginbottam whispered "They're coming".If the parenthesis is a complete sentence, the full stop stays inside the brackets:

There was an earthquake in Osaka. (Another had occurred in Tokyo the year previously.) No full stop is required if a sentence ends with a question mark or exclamation, or a title or abbreviation which contains its own punctuati

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