Their uncle is the oldest in the family.

Common nouns begin with capital letters in case of metaphoric personi-
cation (/:. Music comes into my house). All the letters of a

word-combination or a sentence may be capitalized to make these language

mphatic. All language units also become expressive when their ii :tter* are capitalized. The same effect can be achieved by the usag 1 italic type) - a special kind of type which graphically makes line. mspicuous and noticeable: aaabbi

Text segmentation means the division of texts into smaller segments: aragraphs. chapters, sections and others. Some of the segments start with verlines (headings or headline^

A paragraph is a group o( sentences which deal with one topic
xpre> completed idea or thought. The sentences in |

japhs are related to each other to produce an effect of unity. Paragrap ised to divide a long piece of writing into separate sections. They give rh 'ariety and pace to

> The following example is the definition of a par;

The central thought or main controlling idea of a paragraph is usuaHJ
;onveyed in what is called a topic sentence. This crucial sentence .
states, summa: -leariy expresses the main theme, is the keystone of

well-built paragraph. The topic sentence may come anywhere in the graph, though most logically and in most cases it is the first sentence immediately tells readers what is coming, and leaves them in no doubt the overall controlling idea. In a very long paragraph, the initial topic senlen may even be restated or given a more significant emphasis in its conclusit

The recommended structure of

follows, [it is rather like a mini-\

plete essay.]

- The opening topic senter

- A fuller explanation of the topic sentence Supporting sentences which explain its significance

- The discussion of examples or evidence

- A concluding or link sentence

The start of a new paragraph is usually signalled by eitiier a doub.
between lines, or by indenting the first line of the new paragraph.


Very short paragraphs are often used in literary writing for stylistic effect.

One of the most famous examples of this device comes from the Bible [John 11:351.

When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping which came with her, he groaned in the spirit, and was troubled. And said, Where have ye laid him? They said unto him, Lord, come and see.

Jesus wept.

The longer the paragraph, the more demands it makes on the reader.

The last sentence in a paragraph is often used to provide a link to the next.

The following example [written by E. M. Forster] shows the skilful use of an attention-grabbing first sentence, and a concluding sentence which whets the reader's appetite to know more about the subject:

John Skelton was an East Anglian: he was a poet, also a clergyman, and he was extremely strange. Partly strange because the age in which he flourished - that of the early Tudors - is remote from us, and difficult to interpret. But he was also a strange creature personally, and whatever you think of him when we've finished - and you will possibly think badly of him - you will agree that we have been in contact with someone unusual.

Cfmpters andsections are major text segments. They may be compared with fragments of mosaic, which form the whole picture when put together.

A heading is the name of a text or its segment. It tends to disclose the plot of narration. It should be garish and catching in order to attract the potential reader's attraction.

Text segmentation is just one of the components of layout. Layout is the physical organization of a text on the page, the screen, or any other medium of written communication. It refers to the visual conventions of arranging texts to assist reading and comprehension. Good layout includes effective use of the following common features: page margins, paragraphs, justification, type style, italics, capitals, indentation, line spacing, centering, type ske, bold, underlining. There are particular conventions of layout in each functional style. Some of conventions are based purely on the function of the text, and some on tradition. The modern trend is towards layout which results m fast and easy reading of the page. Layout complements content in efficient communication. It facilitates the reading and the comprehensibility of the text. AH readers are affected by these conventions, even though they may not be aware of them.



Stylistic Semasiology Lexico-semantic Stylistic Devices

Figures Of Substitution



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