Epithets are such attributes which describe objects expressively.

Assigned features. It is essential to differentiate between logical attributesand epithets proper. Logical attributesare objective and non-evaluating:


a round table, green meadows, next day, second boy, loud voice, 1 , , , , , , , , , , . They have nothing to do with stylistics. Epithets properare subjective and evaluating, mostly metaphorical. These qualities make epithets expressive:

loud ocean, wild wind, glorious sight, irresistible charm, crazy behaviour. Classification. Epithets may be classified on the basis of their semantic and structural properties. Semantically, epithets fall into two groups: epithets associated with the nouns modified and epithets not associated with the nouns modified. Associated epithetspoint out typical features of the objects which they describe. Such typical features are implied by the meaning of the nouns themselves:

if forest, then - dark; if attention, then - careful; if seas, then - salty; if tears, then - bitter; if sky, then blue;

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Unassociated epithetsascribe such qualities to objects which are not

inherent in them. As a result of this, metaphors emerge fresh, unexpected,

original and expressive:

voiceless sands, helpless loneliness, thirsty deserts, blank face, murderous weather, , , , , , , , , , , . Unassociated epithets may be called "speech epithets" because they are created right in the process of communication.

Associated epithetsare mostly language epithets. Their use with certain nouns has become traditional and stable. Thus, they are language-as-aJ system elements.

As to their structural composition, epithets are divided into simple, compound, phrasaland clausal. Simple epithetsare ordinary adjectives: magnificent sight, tremendous pressure, overwhelming occupation,

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Compound epithetsare expressed by compound adjectives:

mischief-making pupil, curly-headed boy, heart-burning desire, - , , , , / .

phrasal epithetsare expressed by word-combinations of quotation type: dn-it-your self command, go-to-devil request, head-to-toe beauty, - , .

Clausal epithetsare expressed by sentences:

J-don 't-want-to-do-it feeling, 1-did-it-myself statement, " ", " ", " ", " ". " ".


This variety of metaphor is based upon the principle of identification of human beings with things which surround them. People may be identified with other people, with animals, with inanimate objects and natural phenomena.

When the speaker resorts to antonomasia, he creates the so-called "talking names" which aim at depicting certain traits of human character: moral and psychological features, peculiarities of behaviour, outlook, etc.:

John is a real Romeo.

The Snake entered the room (instead of Mary entered the room).

Yesterday Jack came across Miss Careless again.

Sam is the Napoleon of crime.

I haven't seen the Pimple of late.

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When the speaker ascribes human behaviour, thoughts and actions to inanimate objects, he resorts to the stylistic device of personification:

In the book Alfred found Love which was hiding herself between

the pages.

Lie is a strange creature, and a very mean one.

The nipht was creeping towards the travelers.

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Factually, allegory is antonomasia. The only difference between them lies in their usage: the domain of allegory is not a sentence but the whole text (a logically completed narration of facts or events).

There are allegoric tales and fables, stories and novels. Completely allegoric are such fables by I. Krylov as "Elephant and mongrel", "Donkey! and nightingale", "Monkey and spectacles". Allegoric fables are not about | elephants, dogs and donkeys. They are about people who behave like

these animals:

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This figure of quality is realized when the speaker intentionally breaks the principle of sincerity of speech. Ironically used words acquire meanings opposite to their primary language meanings:

ironical good means bad, enough means not enough, pleased means displeased, etc.

Assigned features. Though irony is a contextual stylistic device, there exist

words and word-combinations which convey ironical meaning out of context:

too clever by half, a young hopeful, head cook and bottle washer, to

orate, to oratorize.

Id order to help the addressee decode irony the speaker often resorts to

appropriate intonation and gestures.

Communicative function. Irony is generally used to convey a negative meaning or emotion: irritation, regret, dissatisfaction, disappointment, displeasure, etc. More examples:

What a noble illustration of the tender laws of this.

Favoured country! - they let the paupers go to sleep!

Cutting off chickens' heeds! Such a fascinating process to watch.

It must be delightful to find oneself in a foreign country without a

penny in one's pocket.

Thank you very much for trumping my ace!

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> irony

There are various types of irony. They have in common the adoption of a distance from the subject for satirical or critical effect.

A speaker might take up an opponent's argument and then exaggerate it to reveal its weaknesses. This is Socratic irony.

Writers or speakers might pretend to hold opinions which are the exact opposite of what they truly believe. [The reader or listener must be alert and skillful to avoid being drawn into a trap.]

Dramatic irony occurs when the audience at a play know something of which the characters on stage are ignorant [the lover hidden in the next room].

Irony is often classed as a form of humour, along with sarcasm and satire. These do not necessarily evoke laughter, but rather a wry shrug or assent to the idea that the received world picture has been disturbed.


Ex. I. Pick out figures of substitution, classify them and define their stylistic functions.

1. Christina's love is hungry: it swallows every penny Bert offers. 2. The ;mpty shell of the Embassy frightened Philip. 3. Mary was a large dark moth, wings lifted, ready to fly. 4. One more truck had passed by, full of mous-aches and beards. 5. Rambos are necessary in Victoria's business. 6. Dance nusic was bellowing from the open door. 7. Dismal and rainy day emerged from the womb of the night. 8. Some remarkable pictures in the gallery: a Petrov-Vodkin, two Van Dycks and an Aivazovsky. 9. Stoney smiled the sweet smile of an alligator. 10. Edward's family is a couple of aunts a thousand years old. 11. It was not unwise to behave like that. 12. The girl gave Jacob a | Lipsticky smile. 13. Jenny is the size of a peanut. 14. A spasm of high-voltage nervousness ran through Diana. 15. Don't move the tiniest part of an inch!

16. Bernard had an overwhelming belief in the brains and hearts of his nation.

17. England has two eyes - Oxford and Cambridge. 18. Money burns a hole in ray pocket. 19. Every Caesar has his Brutus.

Ex. II. Recognize metaphors and classify them.

I. The moon held a finger to her lips and the lake became pale and quiet. 2. Beauty is a flower. 3. The sun ray on the wall above Pete slowly knifes | down, cuts across his chest, becomes a coin on the floor and vanishes. 4. That, great kind man had taken Becky under his wing. 5. Spring will come again | with her sweet fresh air creeping in. 6. Carol was already familiar with the geography of the house. 7. There, at the very core of London, in the heart of its business, in the midst of a whirl of noise stands Newgate. 8. The sight took! Bobby's attention. 9. Mirabel was a wonderful cook. 10. The ghost of a smile J

Assigned features. Simile should not be confused with logical comparison which is devoid of any stylistic meaning. The sentence "John can run as fast as Jack" contains purely logical confrontation of two objects. Here are some more examples of logical comparison:

John is older than Sam.

John behaves like his father.

John is not so heavy as Sam.

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, : -. Classification. Simile may be expressed by means of the following structural variants:

1. Conjunctions as or like:

Rosa is as beautiful as a flower. Paula is like a fairy.

2. Adverbial clauses of comparison (conjunctions as, as if, as though):
Robin looked at Sibil as a mouse might look at a cat.

Viola behaves as if she were a child.

3. Adjectives in the comparative degree: Roy behaved worse than a cutthroat.

4. Adverbial word-combinations containing prepositional attributes: With the quickness of a cat, Samuel climbed up the tree.

5. Simile may be implied, having no formal indications of comparison: Odette had a strange resemblance to a captive bird.

Conjunctions of comparison in the Ukrainian language are the following: , , , , , , , , , , :, :, etc.:

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... -. . Communicative function.Simile is one of the most frequent and effective means of making speech expressive. The more unexpected the confrontation of two objects is, the more expressive sounds simile.

> similes

A simile requires less of an imaginative leap than does a metaphor. A simile states that A is like B, whereas a metaphor suggests that A actually is B.

The simile is one component of imagery. This is the process of evoking ideas, people, places, feelings and various other connections in a vivid and effective way.

Imagery is used in both written and spoken communication in many varieties of form, from advertising to poetry and from chatting to speech-making.

Simile, metaphor and symbol are the main types of imagery, and the result is that communication acquires a creative and vital quality which somehow springs from the essential act of comparison.

So, a raindrop can become a crystal, fear can become an abyss, and jealousy a monster.

By employing imagery, we interpret the material world and use language to transmit our vision.


The speaker resorts to synonymic nomination of the same notion due to a number of reasons. These reasons become obvious if we turn to functional predestination of synonyms. Communicative functions.

1. Compositional function.If the same word is repeated a number of times in a limited fragment of speech, the speech becomes clumsy, monotonous and stylistically crippled:

John came into the room. John was excited. John threw himself into the arm-chair...

The clumsiness is removed by means of contextual synonyms: John = he = the man = Sam's brother = the victim of the situation, etc.

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2. Specifying function.To describe the object in a thorough, profound
and detailed way, the speaker composes a chain of synonymic words of the
same syntactic function:

Oswald's life was fading, fainting, gasping away, extinguishing slowly.

Edgar was such a scoundrel, such a blackguard, such a villain, such

a rascal.

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3. Intensifying function.A chain of synonyms is a potent means of
expressing human feelings and emotions. Scores of subjective modal mean
ings may be rendered with the help of synonymic repetition: request, invita
tion, gratitude, gladness, impatience, certainty, hatred, irritation, disgust, hor
ror, indignation, fury, etc. For example:

Could you leave me now, Rupert. I'm exhausted, tired, weary of the whole thing!

Kill him, Johnnie! Murder him! Slaughter him like a pig! , . , .

> synonyms

Synonyms are usually referred to by linguists as 'near synonyms', because they argue that no two words mean exactly the same. If they did, one would probably disappear from use.

English is a language which has 'borrowed' from many varied sources during the course of its history. This has created a wide and heterogeneous lexicon. For example, terms which were originally French currently coexist with their Anglo-saxon equivalents:


petite small
tour tnp
chauffeur driver
aperitif drink
promenade front (as in sea-front)
escritoire desk

m The French term usually carries a prestige value over that of the English equivalent, which is often seen as basic and even crass. This is because of the history of French dominance over the English as a result of the Norman Conquest.

During the period of French rule after 1066, a state of diglossia existed throughout the south of England. Diglossia means that two languages are used by one society, but applied to two discrete functions. French was used for matters of church and state, whereas English was used by the common people for personal and family discourse.

The legacy of this diglossia is that we have a multitude of synonyms or near-synonyms at our disposal.

However, it is usually preferable to state the same idea in a variety of styles, rather than to repeat one definitive term for one specific phenomenon.

In Shakespeare's King Lear, the king confesses to being a 'foolish fond old man'. The use of two near synonyms has a poetic and dramatic effect, as one adjective has the effect of intensifying the other.


This figure of contrast is a combination of words which areseman-tically incompatible. As a result, the object under description obtains characteristics contrary to its nature: hot snow, loving hate, horribly beautiful, nice blackguard.

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. Classification. The main structural pattern of oxymoron is "adjective + noun" (hot snow). The second productive model is "adverb + adjective" (pleasantly ugly). Predicative relations are also possible (Sofia's beauty is horrible). Besides that, oxymoron may occasionally be realized through free syntactic patterns, such as up the down staircase.

Communicative function. Oxymoron has great expressive potential. It is normally used in cases when there is a necessity to point out contradictory and complicated nature of the object under description.




> oxymoron

The oxymoron is closely related to antithesis and paradox. Both of these are Figures of speech.

An oxymoron is 'a contracted paradox'. That is, the paradox is an apparently contradictory statement;whereas the contradiction in an oxymoron is reduced to just two antithetical terms.

It is the sort of playful and often witty effect used by those who wish to draw attention to their command of language.

The device is much-loved by poets, because it enables them to express complex ideas in a very compressed form:

Where grey-beard mirth and smiling toil retired The toiling pleasure sickens into pain [OLIVER GOLDSMITH]


Paradox is a figure of speech in which a statement appears to be self-contradictory, but contains something of a truth:

The child is father to the man.

Cowards die many times before their death.

Paradoxically speaking, language study can be fun. Communicative function.Paradox is used for emphasis or stylistic effect.

Additional features. Paradox was much-used by the Metaphysical poets of the seventeenth century - of whom John Donne is perhaps the best known. The following example is taken from one of his religious sonnets in which he appears to God to strengthen his beliefs. He packs three paradoxes into the

last four lines:

Divorce , untie, or breake that knot againe. Take to you, imprison , for I Except you enthrall , never shall be free, Nor ever chast, except you ravish .


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