A nominative sentence is a variant of one-member structures: it has neither subject nor predicate. Itis called nominative or nominal because its basic (head) component is a noun or a noun-like element (gerund, numeral).

Classification. There are such structural types of nominative sentences as:

1. Unextendednominative sentences consisting of a single element:

Morning. April. Problems.

2. Extendednominative sentences consisting of the basic component and
one or more words modifying it:

Nice morning. Late April. Horribly great problems.

3. Multicomponentnominative sentences containing two or more basic el-


Late April and horribly great problems.

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, , , , , . Communicative functions. A sequence of nominative sentences makes for dynamic description of events. Sets of nominative sentences are used to expressively depict the time of the action, the place of the action, the attendant circumstances of the action, the participants of the action.


Like ellipsis, aposiopesisis also realized through incompleteness of sentence structure, though this incompleteness is of different structuraland semantic nature:it appears when the speaker is unwilling to proceed and breaks off his narration abruptly:

If you go on like this...

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, ... Assigned features.The information implied by aposiopesis is usually clear in communicative situation. Break-in-the-narrative expresses such modal meanings as threat, warning, doubt, indecision, excitement, and promise.

Note.Aposiopesis should not be confused with unintentional break in the narrative, when the speaker does not know what to say. Unintentional break off is of no stylistic significance, though it may serve as an indirect evidence of the speaker's confusion, his being at a loss.



It is deliberate omission of structurally significant conjunctions and connectives:

John couldn't have done such a silly thing, he is enough clever for that. Fathers, mothers, uncles, cousins. Cocking tails and pricking whiskers,...

We had heard planes coining, seen them pass overhead, watched them go far to the left, heard them bombing... , , . 쳺, 쳺 , . : . Communicative functions. Asyndeton makes speech dynamic and expressive. Sometimes it implies the speaker's haste, nervousness and impatience.


Parceling is intentional splitting of sentences into smaller parts separated by full stops:

Oswald hates Rolf. Very much.

Sally found Dick. Yesterday. In the pub.

Then the pain began. Slow. Deliberate. Methodical. And professional.

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Assigned features. Parceling is typical of spontaneous speech, where the function of dots is performed by pauses. In speech parceling may be non-stylistic, when it is just the resuit of the specific psychological process of forming and verbalizing human thoughts.

Communicative functions. When used in writing, parceling performs the following functions:


1. It reflects the atmosphere of unofficial communication and spontane-ouS character of speech.

2. It reflects the speaker's inner state of mind, his emotions, such as nervousness, irritation, excitement, confusion, perplexity, etc.

3. It may serve as a means of making information more concrete and more detailed.


Stylistic repetition of language units in speech (separate words, word-combinations or sentences) is one of the most frequent and potent stylistic devices.

Classification. There are such structural types of repetition as:

1. Consecutive contact repetitionof sentence parts and separate


/ am wearv. weary, wean of the whole thing!

Never take the rifle again. Put it back! put it back! Put it back!

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2. Anaphora.The repeated word or word-combination is at the begin
ning of each consecutive syntactic structure:

Victory is what we need. Victory is what we expect.

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3. Epiphora.The repeated unit is placed at the end of each consecutive

syntactic structure:

It is natural to be scared in a case like that. You are sure to be petrified in a case like that. ! ! ! ! . .

4. Framing.The initial part of a language unit is repeated at the end of
this unit:

Poor Mary. How much Jack loved her! What will he do now? I wish it hadn't happened. Poor Mary.

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5. Linking or reduplication.The final component of a syntactic struc
ture is repeated at the beginning of a sequential syntactic structure:

It was because of that dreadful occurrence. That dreadful occurrence had changed it all.

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6. Chiasmus(reversed parallel construction). In such syntactic struc
tures there is a cross order of repeated language units:

The jail might have been the infirmary, the infirmary might have been

the jail.

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, , , . Communicative functions. The device of repetition aims at emphasizing a certain component of the utterance. Being repeated, a language unit obtains additional stylistic information. Consecutive contact repetition is capable of rendering scores of modal meanings and human emotions: certainty, doubt, delight, impatience, worry, request, invitation, gratefulness, horror, irritation, disgust, hate, fury, indignation, and others.

Such varieties of repetition as anaphora, epiphora, framing, linking are text-forming devices or compositional means.


Itis a syntactic device of naming objects so that there appears a chain of homogeneous parts of the sentence:

There were cows, hens, goats, peacocks and sheep in the village.

Communicative functions. If a chain of enumerating words is long, it creates the effect of great quantity of objects. If the objects being enumerat- [ ed are heterogeneous, enumeration raises the expressiveness of speech, makes it dynamic and informative.

More examples:

There was a great deal of confusion and laughter and noise,, the noise of orders and counter-orders, of knives and forks, of corks and glass-stoppers.

The principal production of these towns appears to be soldiers, sailors, Jews, chalk, shrimps, officers and dock-yard men. "". "". "". "". "diiamu". "", "" - ! , , , . . , - / , . ̳ , , ' .

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The speaker resorts to the repetition and enumeration of the type described above quite intentionally and consciously. However, repetition may be of unintentional, involuntary or tautological nature.

Classification. Tautological repetition may be caused by the following reasons:

1. The speaker's excitement, fright, scare, petrification, grief and other
deep emotions:

Darling, darling Bundle. Oh, darling Bundle. She's dead; I know she's dead. Oh, my darling. Bundle darling, darling Bundle. I do love you so. Bundle -darling - darling...

2. Slipshod organization of the utterance, low cultural level of the speaker:
No one could do the job more better.

I ain 7 got no cigarettes from nobody.

The name of my informant... the name of my informant... the name

of... the name. The name escapes me.

3. Peculiar physical condition of the speaker: alcoholic intoxication, drows
iness, unconsciousness, etc.:

"I did... what you said..." Dun gasped, closing his eyes and squeezing the words out in painful jerks. "It was too late... Give me something. Doc... Give me something, quick-

ly.... Got to hold out... get us down... She's on autopilot but... got to

get down... Must tell Control... must tell..." His mouth moved silently.

With a desperate effort he tried to speak. Then his eyes rolled up and

he collapsed.

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... ... Communicative functions. Generally speaking, involuntary repetition has little to do with stylistics. It becomes stylistically significant when used in writing as a characterization device.


Itis stylistically motivated redundant repetition of conjunctions or prepositions:

The dog barked and pulled Jack, and growled, and raged. Communicative functions.Polysyndeton is a means of rhythmical organization of the utterance. Due to this quality it is widely used in poetry. It also makes for underlining the most important part of information. More examples:

He no longer dreamed of storms, nor of women, nor of great occurrences, nor of great fish, nor fights, nor contests of strength, nor of his wife. First the front, then the back, then the sides, then the superscription, then the seal, were objects of Newman's admiration. , . , . , , .

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Parallelism is a stylistic device of producing two or more syntactic structures according to the same syntactic pattern:

Mary cooked dinner, John watched TV, Pete played tennis.

Assigned features. Parallel constructions is a means of enumerating facts, comparing them or confronting them. Parallel confrontation of facts may result in another stylistic device - antithesis:

Married men have wives, and don't seem to want them. Single fellows have no wives, and do itch to obtain them. Communicative functions.Syntactic parallelism is polyfunctional. It creates rhythm and is typical of poetry. It makes speech persuasive and is a feature of the publicistic and oratory styles. It underlines important information and is widely used in everyday speech. More examples:

The cock is crowing,

The stream is flowing,

The small birds twitter,

The lake doth glitter.

Our senses perceive no extremes. Too much sound deafens us; too much

light dazzles us; too great distance or proximity hinders our view.

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