Decide if these statements are ironic or not.

"So you've lost the books I lent you? Well, that's wonderful!" "She gave us a two-hour lecture on how to make a cup of tea. It was really fascinating."

"We can't select you for the play. It doesn't feature simpletons." "Yes, put the baby next to the fire. That will be the safest place." "Don't look at me in that way - unless you want a thick ear!" It is a truth universally acknowledged that a man in possession of a fortune must be in want of a wife.

Assignment 1. Match each figure of quantity with its main stylistic feature:

1.Hyperbole. 2. Meiosis. 3. Litotes.

a) positive sense of a structure with double negation;

b) a deliberate exaggeration;

c) a deliberate diminution.

Assignment 2. Indicate separately the cases of: a) hyperbole; b) meiosis; c) litotes:

1. English and American hands were as scarce as hen's teeth in this unhealthy place. (W. Foster). 2. He would give the world for her fair eyes. 3. Dear aunt, you frightened me out of my senses. (H. Fielding). 4. A smile crossed Natt's face from ear to ear. (H. Caine). 5. An unfortunate man would be drowned in a tea-cup. 6. A watched pot never boils. 7. He said: "I thought I'd come up and have a word with you, father." (A. Cronin). 8. I have not seen you for ages. 9. To write a novel is as simple for him as falling off a chair, I suppose. 10. You make noise enough to wake the dead. 11. We'll be back in three shakes of a dead lamb's tail. (J. Conroy). 12. He seemed to me to be frightened all to pieces. (A. Doyle). 13.1 don't speak empty words. 14. It hadn't been for nothing after all. 14. No man is indispensable. 15. These cabins aren't half bad. (H. Wells). 16. Nothing is impossible to a willing heart. 17. I've had such a lot of worry lately that I don't know whether I'm on my head or heels. (H. Lawson). 18. And the floors! They haven't seen water for ages. (J. Steele). 19. An old dog barks not in vain. 20. "Well, that's not a bad idea," he said finally. (M. Wilson). 21. He proceeded very slowly and cautiously, an inch at a time. (J. London). 22. He was a good-for-nothing fellow. 23.1 wouldn't say it is beyond your purse to buy that book.

Assignment 3. Match each metonymic figure of quality with its main stylistic feature:

1.Metonymy. 2. Synecdoche. 3. Periphrasis. 4. Euphemism.

a) replacement of a direct name of a thing/phenomenon by the description of some of its quality;

b)naming the whole object by mentioning part of it, or naming a constituent part by mentioning the whole object;

c) replacement of an unpleasant, impolite word or expression with a milder and decent one;

d)transference of a name of one object to another based upon contiguity.

Assignment 4. Match each metaphoric figure of quality with its main stylistic feature:

1.Metaphor. 2. Epithet. 3. Antonomasia. 4. Personification. 5. Allegory.

a) an attribute describing an object expressively, pointing out an implied figurative connotation;

a) Satan b) a bug, bed-bug, clinch c)God   d) a swindler e) a lawyer, judge   a) a soldier military man b) a woman c) the Nile d) a peasant woman e) a an impudent woman   a) an eagle b) a tavern-keeper c) death d) a crocodile e) a (black)smith, farrier   a) the sun b) an adventurer, gambler c) a tramp, vagrant, hobo d) herring e) a lion   a) a cowardice b) a writer, journalist, clerk c) stock exchange d) stars e) a veteran


b) an abstract notion in a concrete image, embodied throughout a whole text, often possessing the features of a human being and having its proper name*

c) transference of a name of one object to another based on similarity;

d) usage of common nouns as proper names based on similarity of qualities, or usage of proper names as common nouns;

e) ascribing human behaviour, feelings, thoughts and actions to inanimate objects.

Assignment 5. Match the periphrases with the notions they rep-

Resent: I.

1)a gentleman in brown

2) a gentleman in black

3) a gentleman/ knight of industry

4) a gentleman of the (long) robe

5) the Father of Lights

(the king of glory/ heaven)

II.1) the Father of Rivers/ Waters

2) a daughter of the soil

3) a daughter of Eve

4) a daughter of Jezebel

5) a son of Mars

III.1) a son of the Nile

2) a son of Vulcan

3) a son/ knight of the Spigot

4) the king of birds

5) the king of terrors

IV. 1) the king of the sea

2) the king of beasts

3) the king of day

4) a knight of fortune

5) a knight of the field

V. 1) a knight of the pen/ pencil/ quill


2) fires of heaven

3) old moustache

4) the arena of the bears and bulls

5) cold feet

Assignment 6. State the kind of the periphrasis: a) logical; b) met-onymic;) metaphoric. Explain what is implied:

1. He was a mere adventurer, a man, who out of office must live by his eikXTh. Macanlay). 2. He is now under fifteen, and an old limb of the law. (Ch. Dickens). 3. Learning is the eye of the mind. 4.1 am desperately fond of her: she is the light of my eyes. (Ch. BrontJ. 5. Soldiers are citizens of death's ^Tjivjand. drawing no dividend from time's tomorrows. (S. Sassoon). 6. Suicide note: The calm, cool face of the river asked me for a kiss. (L. Hughes). 7 ppd cock will crow in his house. 8. "Of what profession is Mr. Archer?" Of the Corporation of the Goosequil - of the Press, my boy," said Warrington. (W. Thackeray). 9. Neither of them had a word to throw to a dog. 10. You are scarcely out of the shell yet. 11. The woman was a walking mrpse. 12. Bacchus has drowned more men than Neptune. 13. He is npen book. 14. She's the skeleton in the family cupboard. 15. She distrusted nlH heads on young shoulders. (H. Walpole). 16. I know she has a sweet tooth still in her head. (M. Edgeworth). 17. He had a warm place in his heart for dogs. (M. Twain). 18. Jack was afraid they were going to ease him of his purse. 19. John was too much of an afternoon farmer to carry the business successfully. (J. Dixon). 20.1 thought it wise to keep that sum for a rainy day. 21. He is not going to depart this life. I suppose. 22. Geargel had been nearly six years upon the throne. (W. Ainsworth). 23. Keep a civil tongue, or I'll throw you to the crowd. (J. Galsworthy). 24. Here in Montreal she was a fish out of water. (Th. Dreiser). 25. A forgetful head makes a weary pair of heels. 26. He is disadvantaged, underprivileged - he still doesn't have a dime. 27. In the real world of political compromise, few hats are all white. (W. Safire "Satire's Political Dictionary"). 28. It is nothing to say that he hadn't a word to throw at a dog. (Ch. Dickens). 29. "I'm running a nut house." He rubbed his hand over his bald dome. 30. Soon he will pay his debt to nature. 31.1 wish I were under the turf. 32. "Go and take a nice big jump in the lake and forget -Come out." says the truck driver. (J. Steele). 33. I was pretty much of a eeenzhorn, I guess. 34. She suddenly took to her heels. (Th. Hardy). 35. Charles Sates expressed his opinion that it was the time to pad the hoof. (Ch. Di-ckens). 36. Snawley himself can tell that this is not his son, and that his son is £0 worms. (Ch. Dickens). 37. In your chair days you will understand all yur vanity. 38. The grocery store on the corner, half a block from where bother lived, changed hands. (J. London). 39. You know the Blakes next or but one. Only last week they flitted between the moon and the milkman. J- Lindsay).

Assignment 7. Supply the missing words from the list below. Define the types of metaphor: 1) dead/original; 2) nominative/cognitive/ imaginative; 3) simple/sustained:

1. Then we'll an hour in the lounge. (A. Cronin). 2. Hunger _. stone walls. 3. When enters the door, love will fly out of the window. 4. His heart was with sympathetic tenderness. (J. London). 5. In a little district west of Washington Square the streets ^ and broken themselves into small strips called "places." (O'Henry)

a) poverty; b) kill; c) have run crazy; d) melting; e) breaks

Assignment 8. Define types(associated I unassociated; simple I compound I phrasal/ clausal)and paraphrase the epithets in the context:

1. Well, haven't you always advocated a kid-glove policy? (D. Carter). 2. Never such a cat-and-dog life as they've been leading ever since! (Th. Hardy). 3. She gave him a penny-in-the-slot smile. (D. Bullett). 4. Does he really think that I will follow his hole-in-the-head advice? 5. As ve often told you, I'm a dyed-in-the-grain Liberal with no confidence in the Liberal Party. (J. Lindsay). 6. My Lady Dedlock fell not into the melting, but rather into a freezing mood. (Ch. Dickens). 7. Europe's new dead-end generation has lost faith in the future. (Newsweek). 8. Mine has been comparatively but aiotusr eating existence hitherto; to-morrow I begin the battle of life. (E. Yates). 9. My

rascals are not milk-and-water rascals, I promise you. (W. Thackeray).

10. She didn't like his gin-and-water voice. 11. A green wound is soon healed.

12. The baculine method was a quite common mode of argument in those

days. (W. Thackeray).

Assignment 9. Point out metaphor among metonymy. Define its stylistic function in eachcase:

1. How to earn daily bread by my pen was then the problem. (B. Shaw)-2. A loose tongue wagged spitefully outside the hospital. (A. Cronin). 3. He bears no malice for you or your relatives. 4. The pen is mightier than the sword. 5. Proverbs are the wisdom of the streets. 6. As things were he had to put his pride in his pocket - he couldn't quarrel with his bread and butter. (A. Cronin). 7. Fortune gives her hand to a bold man. 8. It's well known, isn ' it, that her circle is very free and easy. (J. Galsworthy). 9. We're badly # need of new blood. (A. Cronin). 10. His tongue failed him. 11. How is the

world treating you? 12. Hungry bellies have no ears. 13. Idleness is the mother of all evil. 14. Misfortunes come on wings and depart on foot. 15. The captain was ashore, where he had been engaging some new hands to make up his full crew.

Assignment 10. Point out metonymy among metaphor. Define its stylistic function in each case:

1. Father is a treasure, a brother is a comfort, but a friend is both. 2. Pat's got somebody in her mind's eye. (K. S. Prichard). 3. The heart that once truly loves never forgets. 4. The heads of the church and State reaped only that which they had sown. (Th. Macaulay). 5. Absence makes the heart grow fonder. 6. He was tolerably stricken in years by this time. (Ch. Dickens). 7. The servant answered the bell. 8. An enemy's mouth seldom speaks well. 9. He's hand in glove with you against me. (A. Cronin). 10. We're ruled by the inventors and human nature, and we live in Queer Street, Mr. Desert. (J. Galsworthy). 11. Young man, you're ready with your tongue. (D. Cusack). 12. The company found their tongues at last. (H. Caine). 13. Flesh and blood could not stand the strain. (A. Doyle). 14.1 saw him down at the hotel shouting the drinks for Sam. I think he's pretty fond of the bottle now. (J. Aldridge). 15. Oh, and the next two hours tripped by on rosy wings.

Seminar No 8

Lexico-semantic Expressive Means

and Stylistic Devices: Figures of Combination

> Similes

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