A. Present Continuous, put questions to them and give negative answers.

Example: (to control) This computer system is controlling work of all the employees. Is it controlling work of all the employees? No, it is not controlling work of all the employees.

To furnish communication, to select the market, to clarify the goal, to supervise the work, to cooperate effectively, to organise a meeting, to contribute to performance, to carry out the mission, to accomplish the task, to estimate the budget.


B. Past Continuous, put questions to them and give negative answers.

Example: (to control) This computer system was controlling work of all the employees. Was it controlling work of all the employees? No, it was not controlling work of all the employees.

To go forward, to increase sales, to analyze market, to achieve the goal, to create a new design collection, to distribute products, to supervise employees, to clarify the rules, to coach managers, to compare figures, to complete the task, to cooperate with partners.


Task 18. Put the verbs in brackets into:

A. Past Continuous.

1. He (to sign) the agreement when the phone rang. 2. Our company (to sell) its shares during the crisis. 3. Our generation (to experience) the increase of inflation. 4. The manager (to check) the stock at 3 p.m.. 5. When I entered the room the director (to speak) with the secretary. 6. We (to think) about setting up a joint venture at that time. 7. This company (to look for) enthusiastic agents when I tried to find a new job. 8. We (to have) our daily meeting for discussion of important matters at 5 oclock yesterday. 9. She (to wait) for some news from our sales department from 6 p.m. to 7 p.m. 10. I saw him yesterday. He (to discuss) a new strategy with middle management.


B. Future Continuous.

1. They (to sell) this product from May this year to May next year. 2. Our bank (to buy) and (to sell) foreign currency when they change a manager. 3. The marketing team (to bear) a lot of responsibility for the output of our new machinery. 4. Managers (to represent) their new ideas during the meeting tomorrow. 5. What the managing director (to do) tomorrow at this time? 6. I (to prepare) for the exam in Management on Sunday. 7. His nominal income (to change) from September to October. 8. We (to promote) some products during the next two years. 9. The factory (to specialise) in production of new articles during the following years. 10. This company (to offer) discounts on some goods from September to November.

C. Future Simple or Future Continuous.

1. The managers (to give) a brief account of the companys development from 5 p.m. till 6 p.m. next Monday. 2. Our senior manager (to present) his new ideas at 5 p.m. tomorrow. 3. I hope he (to accept) the job offer. 4. Tomorrow at 9 oclock I (to wait) for you at my office. 5. The product manager of this corporation (to phone) you tomorrow. 6. At this time next week we (to fly) to New York. 7. I (to stay) in the company for the next three months. 8. This marketing department (to need) extra staff next year. 9. Closing a deal (to be) the hardest part of my duty. 10. Our company (to produce) this new brand from now on.

Task 19. Yesterday was a typical day of your manager. Write what he/she was doing and what he/she was not doing yesterday at a certain time:

At 8 oclock (to go to the office); at 9 oclock (to look through the diary); at 10 oclock (to speak on the phone); at 11 oclock (to have a meeting with clients); at 12 oclock (to have lunch); at 1 p.m. (to make a presentation); at 2 p.m. (to have a meeting at the personnel department); at 3 p.m. (to give instructions to the staff); at 4 p.m. (to have a negotiation); at 5 p.m. (to plan the next working day); at 6 p.m. (to go home).

Task 20. Translate the sentences into English using Continuous Tenses:

1. ? ³ . 2. ֳ . 3. . 4. . . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. ³ . 10. . 11. . ³ . 12. , . 13. 12 ? . 14. , . 15. , ? . 16. -, . 17. , . . 18. , . 19. -. 20. . 21. . 22. . 23. . 24. ? 25. . 26. . 27. . 28. ³ , . 29. . 30. .


Task 21. Skim Text 1 to pick up the major ideas of it. Note them down.

Task 22. Scan the text to find information on strategy. Render this portion of the text in Ukrainian.

Task 23. Scan the text to find English equivalents of the following Ukrainian sentences:

1. ,  .

2. , - , .

3. () .


Task 24. Read the text to answer the following questions. Translate your answers into Ukrainian.

What are the main reasons for planning?

What is the central task of planning?

What kinds of plans are there?

What is the nature of strategies and policies?

What are the definitions of policies and strategies, goals and objectives?

What is the difference between rules and procedures?

Should a company have its program? Why?

What is a budget? Is it a means of planning or controlling?


For effective activity of individuals working together in groups or teams, a managers basic task is to see that everybody understands the groups purposes, objectives and the methods of attaining them. People must know what they are expected to accomplish. This is the function of planning.

Planning is a rationally demanding process; it requires that we consciously determine courses of action and base our decisions on purpose, knowledge and considered estimates.

There are four major aspects, which highlight the character of planning:

1. Its contribution to purpose and objectives. All plans should contribute to the achievement of the purpose and objectives of the enterprise.

2. Its primacy among the managers tasks. A manager must plan to know what kinds of organisation relationships and personal qualifications are in need, along which course to lead subordinates and what kind of control to apply.

3. Its pervasiveness. Planning is a function of all managers, although the character of planning will vary with each managers authority and with the character of the policies and plans outlined by superiors.

4. The efficiency of resulting plans. The efficiency of a plan refers to its input to the purpose and objectives, offset by costs and other factors required to formulate and run it. Plans are efficient if they attain their purpose at a rational cost.


The process of planning consists of some steps, presented in the Table.


Being conscious of opportunity In light of: the market, competition, customers wants, companys strengths, companys weaknesses.
Setting objectives or goals Where the company wants to be, what it wants to accomplish and when.
Considering planning principles In what environment internal or external will the companys plans operate?
Identifying alternatives What are the most promising alternatives to accomplish the objectives?
Comparing alternatives in light of goals sought Which alternatives will give us the best chance of meeting the companys goals at the lowest cost and highest profit?
Choosing an alternative Selecting the course of action the firm will pursue.
Formulating supporting plans Such as plans: to buy equipment and materials, to hire and train workers, to develop a new product.
Expressing plans in numerical terms by making budgets Developing such budgets as: volume and price of sales, operating expenses necessary for implementing the plans, expenditures for capital equipment.


There are various types of plans: purposes or missions, objectives or goals, strategies, policies, procedures, rules, programs, budgets.

An enterprise has its purpose or mission. In every social system, enterprises have basic functions or tasks that society assigned to them. For example, the purpose of business in general is production and distribution of goods and services, satisfying the needs and wants of the society.

Objectives and goals are symbols of not only the end of planning but also the end toward which managers aim organising, staffing, leading and controlling. While enterprise objectives are the essential plans of the firm, a department may also have its own objectives. Its goals logically contribute to the attainment of enterprise objectives.

We can define strategy as the determination of the basic long term objectives of an enterprise and adoption of courses of action and allocation of resources necessary to realise these goals. The purpose of strategy is to determine and communicate through a system the major objectives and policies, a picture of the kind of enterprise that managers envision. Strategies provide a framework for guiding thinking and action.

Policies define a sphere within which a decision is to be made and ensure that it will be reliable and contribute to an objective. Policies help to decide issues before they become problems, make it unnecessary to analyze the same situation every time it comes up and combine other plans thus permitting managers to delegate authority and still maintain control over their subordinates.

Procedures are chronological sequences of required actions. They are guides to action, rather than to thinking and they give in details the exact manner in which certain activities should be accomplished.

Rules interpret specific required actions or nonactions, allowing no discretion. They are generally the simplest type of plan.

Programs are a complex of goals, policies, procedures, rules, tasks and assignments, steps to be taken, resources to be employed and other elements necessary to carry out a given course of action; they are, as a rule, supported by budgets.

A budget is a statement of expected results expressed in numerical terms. Budgets are devices of controlling. They are the basic planning instrument in numerous companies. A budget is necessary for control, but it cannot supply a sensible standard of control unless it reflects the plans.

Task 25. Translate the sentences into English:

1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. , , , , . 8. . 9. , . 10. . 11. . 12. . 13. , . 14. . 15. .

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