The job of management is to help an organisation make the best use of its resources to achieve its goals. Different managers emphasise different activities and exhibit different management styles; they do not manage using identical techniques. There are many reasons for these differences, including the managers training, personalities and backgrounds. Besides, the organisational level at which a manager operates often influences her/his functions and skills.

Practically in every organisation, there are three main types of managers, namely first-line managers, middle managers and top managers, organised in a hierarchy.

At the base of the managerial hierarchy there are the first-line managers, often called supervisors. They are responsible for the daily supervision of the non-managerial employees who perform many of the specific activities necessary to produce goods and services. First-line managers work in all departments of all organisations. Examples of first-line managers include the supervisor of a work team in the manufacturing department of a car plant, the head nurse in the obstetrics department of a hospital and the chief mechanic overseeing a crew of mechanics in the service department.

Middle managers are supervising the first-line managers. They are responsible for finding the best way to organise human and other resources to achieve organisational goals. Middle managers find ways to help first-line managers and non-managerial employees better utilise resources to reduce manufacturing costs or improve customer service. They also evaluate whether the goals that the organisation is pursuing are appropriate and suggest to top managers ways in which these goals should be changed. The major part of a middle managers job is to develop and fine-tune skills and know-how, such as manufacturing or marketing expertise, that allow the organisation to be effective and efficient.

Top managers in contrast to middle managers, are responsible for performance of all departments. They establish organisational goals, such as which goods and services the company should produce; they decide how different departments should interact; and they monitor how well middle managers in each department utilise resources to achieve goals. Top managers are ultimately responsible for success or failure of an organisation and their performance is continually scrutinised by other employees and investors.

The chief executive officer (CEO) is a companys most important manager to whom all the top managers report. A central concern of the CEO is the creation of the smoothly functioning top-management team, a group composed of the CEO, COO (the chief operating officer) and the department heads most responsible for helping to achieve organisational goals.

In any organisation, there is a number of departments, such as manufacturing, accounting, financial or engineering ones, where a group of people work together and possess similar skills or use the same kind of knowledge, tools or techniques to perform their jobs. It is because a managers responsibility is to acquire and develop critical resources. Each manager is typically a member of specific department. Inside department managers possess job-specific skills and are known as, for example, marketing, manufacturing, sales or financial managers. Within each department, there are all three levels of management, i.e. first-line, middle and top managers.


Task 25. Translate the sentences into English:

1. . 2. . 3. , , . 4. 볺. 5. . 6. . 7. , , . 8. , , . 9. , , . 10. , . 11. . 12. . 13. . 14. . 15. .

Task 26. Make up a plan of the text THE PROFESSION OF A MANAGER in writing.

Task 27. Write about levels of management in 5-7 sentences.

Task 28. Reduce Text 1 to 150 words in writing, saving the main ideas of it.

Task 29. Skim the text PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL SKILLS OF A MANAGER to subtitle each paragraph of it.

Task 30. Scan the text to find word combinations with the word manager(s). Translate the sentences containing them.

Task 31. Scan the text to find the English equivalents to the following word combinations: , , , , () .

Task 32. Read the text to answer the following questions. Translate your answers into Ukrainian.

Why do managers have to be effective and efficient at the same time?

What are the skills that every good manager has to possess?

Why are conceptual skills important?

What human skills should a manager have?

What is meant by possessing technical skills?

Should all managers have the same amount of conceptual, human and technical skills?



Management is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organisational goals. For this reason, each manager must possess a number of personal and professional skills. Good managers perform the tasks effectively and efficiently. To be effective is to achieve organisations goals; and to be efficient is to achieve goals with minimum waste of resources, that is, to make the best use of money, time, materials and people. The best managers are those who maintain a clear focus on both effectiveness and efficiency.

Education and experience enable managers to recognise and develop the skills they need to put organisational resources to their best use. Research has shown that managers acquire three principal types of skills: conceptual, human and technical. The level of skills, that managers need, depends on their level in their managerial hierarchy. Typically, planning and organising require higher levels of conceptual skills, while leading and controlling require more human and technical skills.

Conceptual skills are demonstrated in the ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and to distinguish between cause and effect. Top managers require the best conceptual skills because their primary responsibilities are planning and organising. Formal education and training are very important in helping managers develop conceptual skills. The ability to focus on a large picture confronting the organisation allows managers to see beyond the present situation and consider the choices while keeping in mind the organisations long-term goals. Very often organisation pays managers to attend specialised programs in order to develop conceptual skills.

Human skills include the ability to understand, alter, lead and control the behaviour of other individuals and groups. The ability to communicate, to coordinate and to motivate people and to mould individuals into a cohesive team distinguishes effective managers from ineffective ones. Like conceptual skills, human skills can be learned through education and training, as well as developed through experience. To manage interpersonal interactions effectively each person in an organisation needs to learn how to understand viewpoints of other people and problems they face. One way to help managers understand their personal strengths and weaknesses is to have their superiors, peers and subordinates provide feedback about their performance. Thorough and direct feedback allows managers to develop their human skills.

Technical skills are the job-specific knowledge and techniques required to perform an organisational role. Examples include a managers specific manufacturing, accounting, marketing and IT skills. Managers need a range of technical skills to be effective. The array of technical skills managers need depends on their positions in organisations. The manager of a restaurant, for example, may need cooking skills to fill in for an absent cook, accounting and bookkeeping skills to keep track of receipts and costs and to administer the payroll and aesthetic skills to keep the restaurant looking attractive for customers.

Effective managers need all three kinds of skills conceptual, human and technical. The absence of even one managerial skill can lead to failure. One of the biggest problems that people who start small business confront is the lack of appropriate conceptual and human skills. Someone who has technical skills to start a new business does not necessarily know how to manage the venture successfully. Similarly, one of the biggest problems that scientists or engineers who switch careers from research to management confront is the lack of effective human skills. Management skills, roles and functions are closely related and wise prospective managers are constantly in search of the latest educational contributions to help them develop the conceptual, human and technical skills they need to function in todays changing and increasingly competitive global environment.

Task 33. Translate the sentences into English:

1. , . 2. . 3. , . 4. , . 5. , , . 6. , . 7. ³ . 8. . 9. , . 10. , . 11. , , , , . 12. . 13. . 14. . 15. .

Task 34. Think over and then write for half an hour on one of the following issues:

A.What attracts you in the profession of a manager? What level of management do you intend to reach in your future career? What do you need for this?

B.What skills necessary for a manager have you already got? Where you born with them or have you leant them? What other skills do you need to acquire?

C.Search for some information on a well-known top manager of any Ukrainian company. Describe his/her career and the skills he/she possesses that contribute to his/her success as a top manager.


Task 35. Having read the material of the unit, how would you answer the questions:

How would you describe the difference between efficiency and effectiveness? What real organisations are or are not efficient and effective, in your opinion?

In what ways can managers at each of three levels of management contribute to organisational efficiency and effectiveness?

Think about the organisation you are studying at. What are the first-line, middle and top managers roles in this organisation? What do they do to help the organisation be effective and efficient?

Think of your direct supervisor. What department is he or she a member of and at what level of management is this person?

If you could give your manager a piece of advice what would it be?

Which managerial skills do you possess at present? What would you do to improve them?

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