Військова наука
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Task 26. Make up a plan of the text “BUSINESS RESEARCH” in writing.

Task 27. Write about the research studies in 5-7 sentences.

Task 28. Reduce Text 1 to 150 words in writing, saving the main ideas of it.

Task 29. Skim the text “RESEARCH ETHICS” to subtitle each paragraph of it.

Task 30. Scan the text to find word combinations with the word “ethical”. Translate the sentences containing them.

Task 31. Scan the text to find the English equivalents to the following word combinations:порушувати домовленість, система цінностей, етичні міркування, захищати конфіденційність третьої сторони, психологічні наслідки.

Task 32. Read the text to answer the following questions. Translate your answers into Ukrainian.

· What is ethics?

· What is the goal of ethics in research?

· What are unethical activities in research?

· How do economic organisations show their recognition of ethics?

· What is the right to privacy?

· Why is deception a controversial question?

· When does debriefing happen?

· How do researchers protect respondent’s confidentiality?


Like other aspects of business, research demands ethical behaviour from its participants. Ethics are norms or standards of behaviour that guide moral choices about our behaviour and our relationships with others. The goal of ethics in research is to ensure that no one is harmed or suffers adverse consequences from research activities. This objective is usually achieved. However, unethical activities are persuasive and include violating nondisclosure agreements, breaking respondent confidentiality, misrepresenting results, deceiving people, invoicing irregularities, avoiding legal liability etc.

The recognition of ethics as a problem for economic organisations was shown in a survey where 80 per cent of organisations reported the adoption of an ethical code. There is no single approach to ethics. Advocating strict adherence to a set of laws is difficult because of the unforeseen constraint put on researchers. Because of the Germany’s war history, for example, the government forbids many types of medical research. Consequently, the German people do not benefit from many advances in biotechnology and may have restricted access to genetically altered drugs in the future. Alternatively, relying on each individual’s personal sense of morality is equally problematic. Consider the clash between those who believe death is deliverance from a life of suffering and those who value life to the point of preserving it indefinitely through mechanical means. Each value system claims superior knowledge of moral correctness.

Clearly, a middle ground between being completely code governed and ethical relativism is necessary. The foundation of that middle ground is an emerging consensus on ethical standards for researchers. Codes and regulations guide researchers and sponsors. Review boards and peer groups help researchers examine their research proposals for ethical dilemmas. Many design-based ethical problems can be eliminated by careful planning and constant vigilance. In the end, responsible research anticipates ethical dilemmas and attempts to adjust the design, procedures and protocols during the planning process rather than treating them as an afterthought. Ethical research requires personal integrity from the researcher, the project manager and the research sponsor.

As research is designed, several ethical considerations must be balanced:

· Protect the rights of the respondent or subject.

· Ensure the sponsor receives ethically conducted and reported research.

· Follow ethical standards when designing research.

· Protect the safety of the researcher and team.

· Ensure the research team follows the design.

In general, research must be designed so a respondent does not suffer physical harm, discomfort, pain, embarrassment or loss of privacy. To safeguard against these, the researcher should follow the next guidelines: a) explain the study benefits while beginning data collection. They should be neither overstated nor understated; b) explain respondent rights and protections; c) obtain informed consent. Knowing why one is being asked questions improves cooperation though honest disclosure of purpose. Inducements to participate, financial or otherwise, should not be disproportionate to the task or presented in a fashion that results in coercion. Sometimes the actual purpose and benefits of your study or experiment must be concealed from the respondents to avoid introducing bias. The need for concealing objectives leads directly to the problem of deception.

Deception occurs when the respondents are told only part of the truth or when the truth is fully compromised. Some believe this should never occur. Others suggest two reasons for deception: (1) to prevent biasing the respondents before the survey or experiment and (2) to protect the confidentiality of the third party (e.g. sponsor). Deception should not be used in an attempt to improve response rates. The benefits to be gained by deception should be balanced against the risks of the respondents. When possible, an experiment or interview should be redesigned to reduce reliance on deception. In addition, the respondents’ rights and well being must be adequately protected and their informed consent must be gained before participating in the research.

Securing informed consent from respondents is a matter of fully disclosing the procedures of the proposed survey or other research design before requesting permission to proceed with the study. For most business research oral consent is sufficient with the exception of cases dealing with children or doing research with medical or psychological ramifications, where it is necessary to have a consent form.

In situations where respondents are intentionally or accidentally deceived, they should be debriefed once the research is complete. Debriefing involves several activities following the collection of data. First, the researcher shares the truth of any deception with the participants and the reasons for using deception in the context of the study’s goals. In cases where severe reactions occur, follow-up medical or psychological attention should be provided to continue to ensure the participants remain unharmed by the research. For experiments, all subjects should be debriefed in order to put the experiment into context. Debriefing usually includes a description of the hypothesis being tested and the purpose of the study.

The privacy guarantee is important not only to retain validity of the research but also to protect respondents. The confidentiality of survey answers is an important aspect of the respondents’ right to privacy.

Once the guarantee of confidentiality is given, protecting that confidentiality is essential. The researcher protects respondent confidentiality in several ways:

· Obtaining signed, nondisclosure documents.

· Restricting access to respondent identification.

· Revealing respondent identification only with written consent.

· Restricting access to data instruments where the respondent is identified.

· Nondisclosure of data subsets.

But privacy is more than confidentiality. A right to privacy means one has the right to refuse to be interviewed or to refuse to answer any question in an interview. Potential participants have the right to privacy in their own homes, including not admitting researchers and not answering telephones. And they have the right to engage in private behaviour without fear of observation. To address these rights, ethical researchers do the following:

· Inform respondents of their right to refuse to answer any questions or participate in the study;

· Obtain permission to interview respondents;

· Limit the time required for participation;

· Restrict to public behaviour only.


Task 33. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Дослідникові необхідно пояснити позитивні аспекти дослі­дження перед тим, як починати збирання даних. 2. Так само, як і інші аспек­ти бізнесу, дослідницька робота вимагає дотримання етичних норм. 3. Серед неетичних дій – порушення конфіденційності респондента, спотворення результатів, обдурювання людей та уникнення відповідальності перед законом. 4. Дослідник зобов’язаний гарантувати та забезпечити кон­фіденційність респондента. 5. Дослідники інформують респондентів про їхні права. 6. Суворе дотримання законів є важким, але необхідним для дослідників. 7. Важливо пам’ятати, що жодна людина не повинна постраждати від здійсненого дослідження. 8. Плануючи дослідження, необхідно брати до уваги етичні аспекти. 9. Етика – це норми та стандарти поведінки людини, а також моральні пріоритети. 10. Обман виникає тоді, коли респонденти говорять тільки частину правди. 11. Дослідники зберігають у таємниці джерело інформації. 12. Добросовісне планування та виконання всіх завдань дослідження сприяє його своєчасному завершенню. 13. Дотримання кодексу поведінки у професійній діяльності допомагає уникненню конфліктів. 14. Вони використали премію як засіб стимулювання її діяльності. 15. Мене­джер підготував рахунок на придбання канцелярських товарів заздалегідь.


Task 34. Think over and then write for half an hour on one of the following issues:

A.Describe the process of research you usually do to perform individual tasks in your specialist subjects. Where do you find information, how do you study and organise, analyze it and make conclusions, how do you structure your reports etc.? Supply all possible difficulties of the process and how you try to overcome them.

B.Have you ever been a respondent in a market research? Describe the situation(s) in detail. What questions did you feel comfortable with and what questions seemed inadequate? What do you personally think of research ethics?

C.What do you think about confidentiality and privacy in business research? Describe your first-hand experience, if any.


Task 35. Having read the material of the unit, how would you answer the questions:

· Is it important to have a person who will guide your investigation?

· What are the objectives of your study?

· What ethical and moral problems are you facing in your research?

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